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Snowbell AN-52 - History

Snowbell AN-52 - History


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Snowbell
(AN-52: dp. 1,275; 1. 194'6"; b. 37'; dr. 13'6"; s. 12.1
k.; cp. 56; a. 1 3"; cl. Ailanthus)

Snowbell (AN-52) was laid down on 3 May 1943 by Pollock-Stockton Shipbuilding Co., Stockton, Calif., as YN-71; launched on 14 September 1943; redesignated as AN-52 on 20 January 1944; and commissioned on 16 March 1944, Lt. Comdr. Robert W. Nordstrom USNR, in command.

Snowbell began her shakedown cruise from the San Diego area on 16 April 1944. She was then ordered to San Pedro, Calif., to maintain the extensive harbor net installation there and also act as a training ship for the Small Craft Training Center. On 24 December 1944, the ship entered the yard of Craig Shipbuilding Corp. Long Beach, for alteration and refitting. Her main mast was removed and two 20 millimeter guns were added. On 27 January 1945, loaded with nets and moorings, Snowbell sailed for Pearl Harbor, T. H.

Snowbell arrived at Pearl Harbor on 6 February. A week later, she sailed for Ulithi, via Eniwetok and Johnston Island. The net tender remained there from 6 to 11 March, sailed for San Pedro, Leyte Gulf, and departed there on the 19th for operations in preparation for the amphibious assault on Okinawa Gunto. The net layer entered the anchorage at Kerama Retto on 28 March and began laying a curtain of nets to protect American shipping from possible submarine attack.

Snowbell tended nets at Kerama Retto until 15 May and then moved to Buckner Bay. On the 25th, she shot down her first enemy plane, a single-engine fighter plane, which crashed a few hundred yards from the ship. She continued operating in waters around Okinawa after the war had ended until early October. On 9 October, a typhoon with winds of approximately 150 miles per hour struck the area and Snowbell. Her stern anchor let go, and she collided with Chinquapin (AN17) on the starboard side. At 1630, she went aground. On the reef only a few minutes, the ship's timbers began to break up. The ship was pounded by high winds and heavy seas. The next morning, the commanding officer ordered all hands to leave the ship lest she capsize.

On 30 October, an Inspection and Survey Board found the ship was unsalvageable. All equipment and stores were removed, and she was decommissioned on 5 December. Snowbell was struck from the Navy list on 19 December 1945, and her hulk was blown up on 14 January 1946.

Snowbell received one battle star for World War II service.


I-52 — The Mysterious Japanese Golden Submarine Lost in World War II

On March 10th, 1944, Japanese submarine I-52 left its home base in Japan for a perilous mission. Its goal was to travel to France and pick advanced Nazi technology.

The I-52 carried eleven tons of tungsten, ten tons of molybdenum, three tons of opium, 3.3 tons of quinine (an antimalarial drug), sixty tons of raw rubber, and 120 tons of tin.

In the cargo hold of I-52 were also 2.2 tons of gold. The gold would pay for the Nazi advanced technology.

Because of its valuable cargo, the submarine was dubbed the ‘Golden Submarine’.

In France, the submarine would pick forty tons of Nazi technology, ranging from radar equipment, optical glass, chemicals, bombsights, airplane engines, torpedoes, and vacuum tubes.

Return cargo included also 800 kilograms (1760 pounds) of uranium oxide to make a ‘dirty bomb’.

Unfortunately for the Japanese, the Allies intercepted communication between the submarine and the Nazis. They had cracked both the Japanese and the Nazi ciphers, therefore they understood the contents of the intercepted messages.

The Allies tracked the entire voyage of the submarine towards Europe. After the submarine communicated the exact location to the Nazi U-boat (submarine) to meet and resupply, the Allies dispatched their submarine hunter unit.

On June 24th, 1944, the Allies successfully torpedoed and sunk I-52 around about 1,574 kilometers (850 nautical miles) west of Cape Verde Islands in the Atlantic ocean.


Snowbell AN-52 - History

By William E. Welsh

Shortly before dawn on May 20, 1941, a flight of 500 transport planes took off from seven airstrips on mainland Greece. As they climbed upward, the tri-motor aircraft emerged from reddish-orange clouds of dust into blue sky. The dust clouds were generated by the propeller wash from hundreds of engines sitting on unpaved runways as the planes prepared for takeoff. Inside each aircraft, a dozen German paratroopers sat hunched on canvas benches sweating profusely inside their heavy uniforms. Each one welcomed the cool air that swept through the cabins once the aircraft were aloft.
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The planes lumbered in tightly packed formations at low altitude over the pale blue waters of the Aegean Sea toward their objective. Once they crossed the coast of enemy-held Crete, they were greeted by a storm of flak that rocked the planes as if they were trees in the wind. Ignoring the turbulence, the veteran paratroopers stood up, shuffled toward the cargo door, and flung themselves spread eagle toward the ground below. Once the flight crews had delivered their human cargo to its destination, they turned their aircraft back toward the mainland to load the next wave. Operation Mercury, the largest airborne invasion the world had yet seen, was without doubt the finest hour of the Junkers Ju-52 transport, known to its crews as “Tante Ju,” or Auntie Junkers.

The Ju-52: A Commercial Aircraft

The Ju-52 was originally envisioned as a commercial venture in 1925 by Deutsche Lufthansa. The concept moved from paper to production when the project was turned over to Junkers in 1928. Its chief designer, Ernst Zindel, oversaw work on two concepts. One was a single-engine freight aircraft (Ju-52/1m) and the other was a three-engine commercial passenger plane (Ju-52/3m) built to carry 17 passengers.

The first single-engine Ju-52 made its maiden flight on October 13, 1930. It was followed six months later by the three-engine version’s maiden flight in April 1931. After just a few years in service, production of the single-engine version came to an abrupt halt in 1934, but the three-engine version, which offered better safety and considerably more power, captured the interest of Lufthansa as well as international customers that used the aircraft for both passenger and freight purposes.

With a Ju-52 transport in the background, Field Marshal Gerd von Runstedt meets an Italian officer at an airfield. The Ju-52 carried personnel on long trips while also serving as the primary air transport for the resupply of the German Army.

The Ju-52/3m had a wing span of 29.5 meters and measured 18.9 meters from nose to tail. The all-metal plane (80/20 magnesium/ aluminum) was easily recognized not only by its three-engine configuration but also by a box-like, corrugated fuselage that gave it an almost unfinished appearance.

Deutsche Lufthansa began flying the Ju-52/3m on heavily traveled commercial routes, such as Berlin to London and Berlin to Rome in late 1932. Twenty-five countries throughout Europe and North and South America purchased the aircraft for commercial use during the 1930s. For 13 years from 1932 to 1945, the Junkers German factories produced Ju-52 variants. It was during its first few years in operation that the Ju-52 earned the endearing nicknames “Tante Ju” and “Eisen Annie” (Iron Annie) because of its reliability and performance that resulted in few forced landings and the need for minimal repair work.

Militarizing the Ju-52

When Adolf Hitler was elected chancellor of Germany in 1933, the future German dictator instructed the Air Ministry to put a plan into action to build a 1,000-plane air force. He did this despite the fact that Germany was prohibited from having any military aircraft through the Treaty of Versailles. Rather than develop an entirely new transport aircraft, the ministry ordered the conversion of a large number of existing aircraft from civilian to military use.

Minimal alteration was required. The Ju-52/3m freight version had a hatch in the roof for loading by crane, a large cargo door on the starboard side just behind the wing, and a door for passengers on the port side. A new hole was cut into the roof to accommodate a dorsal machine gun, and the interior was reconfigured for different missions.

Photographed in flight from another aircraft, a Ju-52 transport plane laden with supplies wings its way to a destination near the front lines in North Africa.

The Ju-52/3m began its military service as a bomber during the Spanish Civil War. During the blitzkrieg period of World War II from 1939 to 1941 it served in a support role by delivering paratroopers to their targets, towing gliders carrying assault troops, and transferring air landing troops to captured airfields. After the invasion of Crete in May 1941, the airplane was used primarily for delivering fuel, ammunition, and supplies to troops in forward areas or isolated pockets and evacuating wounded.

A military version of Eisen Annie, designated the Ju-52/3mg3e was ready for service in 1934. While a version designated the Ju-52/3m Sa3 was already operating for the Reichswehr in the role of personnel transport, cargo carrier, and pilot trainer, the g3e was intended as an interim bomber before more sophisticated bombers were available in 1936. The military version was powered by three 660hp BMW 132A radial engines and armed with dorsal and ventral 7.92 MG 15 machine guns, the latter of which was affixed to the aircraft’s underside with a retractable dustbin attachment. When fully loaded, whether with troops or supplies, the aircraft had a top speed of 171 miles per hour and a cruising speed of about 120 miles per hour. The Ju-52/3m’s round-trip range carrying a 1,984-pound load was 720 miles. This range increased to 900 miles with a lighter load (992 pounds) or decreased to 450 miles with a heavier load (3,306 pounds).

The Ju-52/3m was equipped with robust landing gear that enabled it to take off and land on dirt or grass strips as short as 400 meters that other aircraft could not use. What is more, the metal structure could withstand considerable punishment, which enabled the crews to complete their missions and limp back to safety when damaged.

First Combat in Spain

Shortly after the Spanish Civil War broke out in July 1936, Hitler sent 20 Ju-52/3ms in September to support Nationalist General Francisco Franco in his struggle against the Republican forces on the Iberian peninsula. During the conflict, Eisen Annie served in a dual role of troop transport and interim bomber. Two years before, the Reichswehr (the Luftwaffe was not reconstituted until 1935) had requested that the Junkers plant at Dessau convert the Ju-52/3m to a bomber configuration (the g3e), and Junkers engineers had installed vertical magazines in its lower cargo bay to accommodate 3,306 pounds of explosives. The makeshift bombers operated with crews of five handling the positions of pilot, co-pilot, radio operator, dorsal gunner, and bombardier/ventral gunner.

Early in the conflict, the Ju-52/3ms played a key role in transporting 13,900 Moorish troops and their heavy weapons to Spain. Lt. Col. Rudolf Moreau established the first official bomber squadron numbering 10 Ju-52/3mg3es in November 1936 to support the Nationalist ground forces. During the course of the conflict, the Moreau squadron dropped more than 6,000 tons of bombs on enemy positions and enemy-held territory. However, the Ju-52/3m’s bomber days were numbered not only because of its lack of speed and maneuverability but because it could not accommodate the horizontal bomb racks that were being installed on newer medium-range bombers in production. As the fighter threat grew more severe in the following months, the Ju-52/3mg3e’s were replaced with more advanced bombers, such as the Dornier Do-17 and the Heinkel He-111. While the Spanish Civil War raged on into its third year, the Ju-52/3ms functioning as bombers were converted back to transports.

Paratroopers in the North: Ju-52s in Operation Weserübung

The invasion of Denmark and Norway on April 9, 1940, known as Operation Weserübung, heralded the use of Ju-52/3ms to deliver paratroopers and air landing forces to the battlefield. During Weserübung, the transports performed a number of key roles, including dropping paratroopers, ferrying air landing troops to captured airfields, and delivering heavy weapons and supplies to paratroopers and other ground forces.

Weserübung involved the first paratrooper attacks in military history. On the first day of the invasion, the paratroopers seized the Vordingborg Bridge linking Copenhagen with its ferry terminal and two airfields at Aalborg in Denmark. The Ju-52/3ms also dropped paratroopers at three key airfields in southern Norway at the cities of Oslo, Stavanger, and Kristiansand.

German airborne troops are sealed inside their Ju-52 transport plane en route to drop zones on Crete.

As the battle progressed over the following days, the Ju-52/3ms played a crucial role delivering weapons and supplies to the German troops fighting Allied forces at the North Sea port of Narvik. A particularly daring mission involved the ferrying of a fully equipped mountain battery to a frozen lake 15 miles north of Narvik with little chance of their returning due to the extreme conditions. The planes took off from Hamburg, refueled at Oslo, and proceeded to their destination. They remained on the frozen lake until they sank in the spring thaw. The lost planes, however, were only a small part of the Ju-52/3m losses incurred during the overall operation. The Luftwaffe counted about 150 transports destroyed or damaged beyond repair by the end of the affair. It was a taste of the heavy losses to come in campaigns ahead.

The Ju-52/3m had various types of landing gear to adapt to both snow and water. During the fighting in Norway, wheeled landing gear was replaced with floats to enable the planes to land in that country’s numerous fjords. Similarly, skis replaced wheels when the Ju-52s had to land in the vast expanses of Russia during the cold months, whether at the front line or in rear areas. In addition, the service crews eventually removed the tear-shaped wheel covers from most planes serving on the Eastern Front when they discovered that mud collected quickly inside them.

Other modifications were made to accommodate paratroopers and to provide better protection against enemy fighter aircraft that attacked the Ju-52/3ms like sharks feeding on fish. The Ju-52 g4f included a reinforced cargo compartment floor, side, and loading doors. It could carry 12 to 13 fully equipped paratroopers and up to 18 air landing troops. In 1941, these planes were upgunned when the dorsal 7.9mm MG 15 was replaced with the 13mm MG 131. While the heavier gun afforded protection against attacks from the rear, the aircraft remained vulnerable to frontal attacks. For this reason, an additional MG 15 was installed in the roof of the cockpit and manned by the radioman. By this time the ventral dustbin had become impractical and was removed from many of the transports.

167 Aircraft Destroyed

The Ju-52 also was employed as a minesweeper. At the start of the war, German scientists discovered that mines laid by British aircraft along German-held coastline could be detonated by a magnetic field. Thus, the Ju-52 g4f was outfitted with an enormous horizontal ring on the underside and wings. An electrical charge was fed into the aluminum ring by a battery. Since the mines were equipped with delayed fuses of seven seconds, the mines detonated about 200 to 300 meters behind the aircraft flying at low level. The minesweeper version was first deployed in 1940 along the Dutch coast and saw its greatest use along the coastline of occupied France.

A Junkers Ju-52 transport drops airborne troops and supplies during Operation Mercury, the invasion of Crete.

The Junkers engineers designed two improved versions of the Ju-52 that were intended as replacements for the original design but never made it to full production. The Ju-252 had three Jumo 211 engines, was armed with the MG 131 dorsal gun placed directly behind the cockpit, and had nearly three times the load-carrying capacity of the Ju-52. It did not have the Ju-52’s corrugated exterior, and it came equipped with a hydraulic rear loading ramp to make loading and unloading of weapons and equipment easier. After its maiden voyage in October 1941, roughly 15 were completed. The following year production began on the Ju-352. This variation was constructed of alternate materials, due to a shortage of metal, and featured three BMW-Bramo engines. The 352 made its maiden flight on October 1, 1943.

Following Weserübung, the Ju-52s had little time to be repaired and reoutfitted before they were delivering paratroopers to key objectives in Belgium and Holland the following month. About 430 Ju-52s participated in the operation. A group of 40 were assigned to tow DFS 230 gliders carrying assault troops who captured the Belgian fortress of Eben Emael, while the remaining 390 carried paratroopers and air landing troops to seize bridges and other objectives in Fortress Holland where the cities of Amsterdam and Rotterdam were located. The heavy attrition among the Luftwaffe’s Ju-52 fleet continued in the Western Campaign with 167 of the aircraft involved destroyed.

Ju-52s in the Mediterranean Theater

An even larger, more significant airborne invasion took place almost exactly one year later. After the fall of mainland Greece, Hitler launched Operation Mercury to capture the island of Crete and deny the Allies the use of its three airfields. More than 500 Ju-52/3ms dropped the four parachute regiments of the 7th Air Division onto the island and also ferried the 5th Mountain Division to Maleme airfield, which was captured on the second day. It was the first battle conducted entirely by paratroops and air landing forces.

During the first day’s assault, the Ju-52/3ms not only towed 75 gliders carrying the 7th Division’s elite assault regiment but also delivered three regiments in two waves to seven separate objectives on the island’s north coast. It was a costly battle in lives and equipment, with the Luftwaffe losing 271 of the 502 Ju-52/3m aircraft assigned to the operation. The thin-skinned fuselages and wings proved vulnerable to heavy antiaircraft fire from British and Commonwealth forces in strong positions. As a result of this experience and subsequent experiences on the Eastern Front, engineers made the air frames of a number of Ju-52s bulletproof to protect the flight crews.

German soldiers exit a Ju-52 which has just landed following a hazardous flight across the Mediterranean Sea from an airfield in Italy.

More than 50 Ju-52/3ms had been deployed in December 1940 to Foggia, Italy, to support Italian operations in Albania and North Africa. They transported 1,665 Italian soldiers to Albania and evacuated more than 8,730 wounded Italians back to Italy over the next five months until Greece fell in April. Three months later, General Erwin Rommel arrived in North Africa at the port of Tripoli, Libya, with his Afrika Korps. Ju-52s were an integral part of supply operations from the time Rommel landed until the Germans evacuated the last of their forces from Tunisia in May 1943.

After United States forces invaded Morocco and Algeria in November 1942, U.S. fighters regularly intercepted Ju-52s engaged in the evacuation of forces from North Africa to Sicily. In a stunning aerial battle on April 5, 1943, U.S. Lockheed P-38 Lightnings jumped an armada of more than 50 Ju-52s in the early morning off the western coast of Sicily. The U.S. fighters shot 14 out of the sky and damaged 65 parked on Sicilian airstrips. Another Allied victory occurred on April 18 when U.S. fighter aircraft pounced on an armada of 65 Ju-52s moving men and materiél and shot down 24 planes. Nevertheless, the Ju-52s left behind an impressive legacy, having flown 8,388 soldiers and ferried 5,040 tons of supplies to North Africa to support Rommel’s campaigns.

Keeping the Eastern Front Supplied

The Junkers factories increased production of Ju-52/3ms from 388 in 1940 to 502 and 503 in 1941 and 1942, respectively. The increased production was necessary to literally feed the hungry stomachs of Germans soldiers on the Eastern Front. Five of the six air transport groups were shifted to occupied territories in the East to support troops operating hundreds of miles from the German frontier where partisans frequently disrupted supply lines and retreating Soviet forces practiced a scorched earth policy.

When their blitzkrieg ground to a halt a short distance from Moscow during the winter of 1941, large numbers of Germans were cut off in subsequent Soviet counterattacks. The only way they could receive supplies was by Ju-52s either landing on airstrips inside the pockets or dropping supplies from the air. The largest pocket resulting from the Soviet winter offensive of 1941-1942 resulted in the creation of the Demyansk pocket where nearly 100,000 German soldiers were surrounded by the Soviet Eleventh and Thirty-Fourth Armies. The forces trapped inside the Demyansk cauldron required about 300 tons of supplies per day. About 75 Ju-52s flew 33,000 sorties into the pocket, which existed from February 8 to April 21, 1942.

Aircraft such as this Junkers Ju-52/3m were utilized to keep German soldiers supplied on the Eastern Front until their airfields were within range of Red Army artillery fire or overrun by enemy troops.

While the Ju-52s rose to the occasion in those situations, they would not be able to meet the impossible demands of supplying the German Sixth Army when it was surrounded at Stalingrad by four Soviet army groups in mid-November 1942. The success at Demyansk made Luftwaffe chief Hermann Göring and others believe it would be possible to supply the troops until they could be relieved. The daily requirement was 600 tons, which was twice that of the Demyansk pocket. This would require 300 Ju-52s. Even though all air transport resources on the Eastern Front were brought to bear, the number could not be mustered, and the actual number available steadily declined through battle losses. The greatest amount of supplies ever delivered on a given day was 289 tons, while the average was around 90 tons.

When the last airfield (Pitomnik) inside the pocket fell to the Soviets in mid-January 1943, the transports resorted to dropping supplies from the air. By the time the Sixth Army surrendered on February 2, the Luftwaffe had lost the equivalent of 266 Ju-52s in a futile effort to supply the beleaguered forces.

Like the breadwinner who is devoted to feeding his family, the Ju-52 would supply troops with food and ammunition in other major pockets until the end of the war, including the Crimean peninsula in 1944-1945, Budapest, and Breslau. Of the 2,822 Ju-52/3ms produced from 1939 to 1944, only 190 were left in service when Berlin fell on May 7.

Although the Ju-52/3m was clearly inferior in terms of flight speed and payload to the U.S. Douglas DC-3 Dakota/C-47 Skytrain, it has earned accolades from military aviation experts for its versatile performance during the war. There is little doubt that it will be associated for a long time with both the highs and lows of the Third Reich in World War II.

Vienna, Virginia, freelance writer William Welsh has written articles on conflicts from the Middle Ages to World War II. He is also a regular contributor to Sovereign Media’s Military Heritage magazine.


South Pacific operations [ edit | edit source ]

Following shakedown off San Pedro, California, Manchineel departed 22 June for the South Pacific Ocean, arriving Pearl Harbor 1 July. She operated off Pearl Harbor until 5 September when she sailed for the Marshall Islands, arriving at Majuro Atoll the 15th. After removing the nets around the atoll, Manchineel continued on to Kwajalein 22 September, arriving 4 days later for net tending duties until 20 May 1945.

The net laying ship then steamed for the Gilbert Islands, arriving Tarawa 23 May to pick up six pontoon barges for tow to Majuro. The trip took 6 long days of retrieving and dragging the water filled pontoons. Manchineel returned to Kwajalein 2 June to resume net operations.

Except for a week at Eniwetok in July, Manchineel remained in the Kwajalein area through the announcement of Japan’s surrender 15 August.


Philadelphus, Mock Orange 'Snowbelle'

This plant is said to grow outdoors in the following regions:

North Augusta, South Carolina

Gardeners' Notes:

On Sep 26, 2015, wendymadre from Petersburg, VA wrote:

Snowbelle has been growing in my Zone 7-A garden in Petersburg, Virginia for six years or so, and it has not thrived. It has grown a bit, and it seems okay until midsummer, when it begins to get frowsy. I'm going to move it to a partially shaded location and hope for the best. The blossoms are beautiful.

On May 8, 2010, atisch from Alameda, CA (Zone 9b) wrote:

I purchased it as a potted plant in October, 2009, about 10" high from Parkseed. The plant arrived with the pot completely dried out with most of the leaves in the bottom of the box. The few remaining leaves dropped off in the first week. I immediately moved it to a 10" pot, had to soak it for hours to re-wet the soil it came in and put it in a near full sun location during the winter rains. The plant looked dead through most of March but there was green right under the surface. Some signs of life then started to appear and the plant quickly took off and it started to form buds by late April. Now in mid-May it's in full bloom and looks like it never experienced a set-back. The flowers are very large for a mock orange and quite fragrant. A real trooper that will be a featured shrub in the g. read more arden from now on. I can highly recommend it! I'm in zone 9, but it appears to be hardy to zone 4.

On Sep 28, 2002, Evert from Helsinki,
Finland (Zone 4b) wrote:

Very attractive mock orange variety, with a short growing habit. Full of white, very strong scented flowers on early summer.


Golden rain tree (Koelreuteria paniculata) is a fast-growing shade tree that at maturity reaches about 30 feet in height. It is unusual because it flowers in midsummer unlike most trees, which flower in spring. The greenish and bright yellow flowers form panicles. Golden rain tree prefers well-drained soil, but adapts to many soil types. It is pest- and disease-resistant and hardy in USDA zones 5 through 9.

Kousa dogwood (Cornus kousa) is a late-flowering, pest- and disease-resistant small ornamental tree. It grows slowly, reaching about 20 feet at maturity. Kousa dogwood thrives in USDA zones 5 through 8. Although it prefers moist, acidic soil, it readily adapts to dry soil. The flowers, which are really bracts, are usually white, but the flowers of some varieties and hybrids of kousa dogwood are pink.


The kousa dogwood grows in acidic, loamy, moist, sandy, well-drained and clay soils. It prefers average moisture but is somewhat drought-resistant.

  • Blooms May–June, with distinctive white bracts surrounding small, greeinish-yellow flowers.
  • Is a good choice for planting near utility lines, buildings or walls.
  • Features dark green leaves that are 2–4" long and elliptic-ovate in shape.
  • Has a beautiful form with horizontal branching.
  • Grows in a rounded shape.
  • Requires mulch around the trunk to protect it from lawnmower or weed cutter damage that could cause poor health.
  • Produces pinkish-red to red fruit that attracts songbirds.
  • Provides great fall color, with leaves turning purple and scarlet.
  • Is tougher than the native flowering dogwood when it comes to disease and pests.
  • Develops a camouflage pattern of tan and brown on the trunk due to exfoliation.

The Crosbyton Review. (Crosbyton, Tex.), Vol. 52, No. 30, Ed. 1 Thursday, July 28, 1960

Weekly newspaper from Crosbyton, Texas that includes local, state and national news along with extensive advertising.

Physical Description

eight pages : ill. page 25 x 18 in. Digitized from 35mm. microfilm.

Creation Information

Context

This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Tocker Foundation Grant and was provided by the Crosby County Public Library to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 75 times, with 4 in the last month. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this newspaper or its content.

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Check out our Resources for Educators Site! We've identified this newspaper as a primary source within our collections. Researchers, educators, and students may find this issue useful in their work.

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Crosby County Public Library

The Crosby County Library serves the rural population of Crosbyton and the surrounding area. In 1988, the library moved from its location underneath the county courthouse and to its own facility, where it continues to hold materials that document the history and influence of this West Texas town.


B-52 Stratofortress History

The Air Force issued requirement for a new strategic bomber in November 1945. Boeing won the contract bid June 5, 1946. The B-52 design evolved from a straight-wing aircraft powered by six turboprop engines to the final prototype B-52s with eight turbojet engines.

For more than 35 years B-52 Stratofortresses have been the primary manned strategic bomber force for the United States. The B-52 is capable of dropping or launching a significant array of weapons in the U.S. inventory. This includes gravity bombs, cluster bombs and precision guided missiles.

An appreciation for the uniqueness of the B-52 requires a survey of over 35 years of modifications, missions, and changes in national security strategy. One must examine not only roles and missions but changing profiles, tactics, and weapons improvements in order to focus on the adaptive process. Certain key characteristics have made that process possible -- without these characteristics, the B-52 would not have met the challenges of almost three decades of service.

In 1945, the Army Air Corps initiated a design competition for a new second generation strategic bomber to follow the B-36. Following further requirements definition by the Army Air Corps in 1946, Boeing was awarded a design contract for this new aircraft. The original requirements specified an aircraft that could carry a 10,000-pound bomb load, 5,000 miles, at a tactical operating altitude of 35,000 feet. This aircraft was to be capable of cruising at a minimum of 450 miles per hour (mph) at its tactical altitude.

In trying to fulfill this ambitious requirement, Boeing faced serious problems in selecting an engine that could provide both the required speed and range. The emergence of the swept- wing, pure jet B-47, coupled with the Air Force's disenchantment over very large propeller engines, caused Boeing to initiate an in-house study with its own money. This study was for an all jet bomber, able to fly the desired mission, using a new engine being designed by Pratt and Whitney. The results of this study, and further testing of the B-47, led Boeing towards the final eight engine jet design of the B-52. As the design matured, additional technology was taken from the B-36 and the B-47. Thus technology, in turn, became a primary determinant of operational requirements. Military aircraft designs matched available technology and then incorporated refinements that appeared technically or scientifically sound to achieve best performances.

By early 1949, Boeing was preparing two prototypes, the XB-52 and YB-52, both of which had been contracted for in early 1947. Although the YB was designated for service test, both models were used to refine the original design. These aircraft, weighing 390,000 pounds apiece, would be two of the largest aircraft ever built.

Even as these airships were being built, SAC requested Boeing to examine the possibility of developing a reconnaissance version. This was the first hint of interest in expanding the original nuclear strike mission specified for the B-52. The result of the SAC request was a design which could be assigned either a bombing or reconnaissance mission with no sacrifice in efficiency or performance. Although this capability was not integrated into the aircraft until introduction of the B-52B, it marked the initial swing towards mission flexibility in the B-52.

The major design emphasis was placed on superior performance with minimum airplane and system complexity. This was to be achieved by a straightforward design which provided a high standard of systems utility and functional reliability. To do this, however, required a number of innovations not anticipated in the original specifications. Some of the design features, like the on-board hydraulic system, were physically the largest yet built, while others like the pneumatic system which powered many aircraft accessories were radical departures from conventional designs. Nonetheless, the original flight test in 1952 proved successful, with performance exceeding the original specifications.

Two prototypes were constructed. The YB-52, the second prototype, first flew April 15, 1952. The XB-52 was damaged during a full-pressure test of its pneumatic system and did not make its first flight until Oct. 2, 1952. Built to carry nuclear weapons for Cold War deterrence, the B-52 Stratofortress replaced the Convair B-36. In total, 744 B-52s were built, with the last delivered in October 1962.

The advent of the ALCM and its integration further extended the useful life of the B-52. In 1982, as the first B-52G cruise missile carrier assumed alert, the weapon system is well into its third decade of operation. The original nuclear mission has been expanded and the strike profile has come full circle as the B-52 has adapted to- changing national strategies and priorities. Its unique characteristics have allowed it to achieve different objectives, in different circumstances, against different adversaries. Through this adaptive process, the capabilities of the B-52 have been broadened to provide firepower across the spectrum of conflict. Even though technology has advanced tenfold since the advent of the B-52, it still remains the mainstay of the bomber force.


The holidays can be especially challenging for grieving families. Each December, we host a five-day experience for 1,750+ children of the fallen and their surviving parent or guardian. As a therapeutic retreat with a blend of fun and inspiring programs, these families can lean on their peers for support. And this year we’re bringing Snowball Express to Walt Disney World® Resort!

We’re also hosting community-driven events for these families all year long. From baseball games, to arts & educational opportunities, to camping trips, these families can deepen friendships right in their hometowns. These events are essential for children and surviving spouses to build bonds with the only people who can truly understand their loss: each other.


Watch the video: SPRING in VANCOUVER - JASMINE - Japanese Snowbell Tree in bloom - Vancouver BC styrax japonicus (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Shay

    prikona, positive

  2. Tadd

    not.not for me

  3. Nikonos

    This message is simply incomparable)

  4. Brandyn

    Excuse, I thought and pushed the question away

  5. Eliseo

    The good thing!

  6. Voodoolkis

    All in due time.



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