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October 14, 2014 Day 267 of the Sixth Year - History

October 14, 2014 Day 267 of the Sixth Year - History


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President Barack Obama bids farewell to Iraqi Army General Babakir Zebari after a meeting at Joint Base Andrews, Md., with more than 20 foreign chiefs of defense to discuss the coalition efforts in the ongoing campaign against ISIL, Oct. 14, 2014.


(Central Islip, N.Y., June 20, 2021) &ndash The Long Island Ducks defeated the Lancaster Barnstormers 18-13 on Sunday afternoon in the rubber game of a three-game series at Fairfield Properties Ballpark.


The Barnstormers struck for three runs in the first inning off Ducks starter Mike Bolsinger on an RBI single by Alejandro de Aza and a two-run double by Blake Allemand. Daniel Fields answered in the bottom of the second with a two-out, two-run home run to right-center off Barnstormers starter Dominic DiSabatino, closing the gap to 3-2.

It stayed that way until the fifth when the Ducks sent 15 men to the plate and erupted for nine runs to take a 11-3 lead. RBI singles by Jesse Berardi and Ryan Jackson, along with a two-run single by L.J. Mazzilli, highlighted the inning. Three more runs scored for the Ducks in the sixth on two bases loaded walks and an RBI fielder's choice to make it a 14-3 game.

Home runs from Anderson De La Rosa and Cleuluis Rondon in the seventh and a sac fly from Kelly Dugan in the seventh trimmed Long Island lead to 14-6. However, Mazzilli&rsquos grand slam to left in the eighth put the Ducks ahead by 12 at 18-6. Lancaster rallied for seven runs in the ninth but still came up five runs short.

Bolsinger did not factor into the decision but lasted three and two-thirds innings, allowing three runs on four hits and three walks while striking out three. Francisco Gracesqui (1-0) picked up the win after one and one-third scoreless innings of relief. DiSabatino (1-3) took the loss, surrendering seven runs on eight hits over four innings with three strikeouts.

Mazzilli led the Flock offensively with three hits, six RBIs and two runs scored. Fields added two hits, three RBIs, four runs and two walks, while Berardi totaled two hits, three RBIs and two runs.


Following a day off, the Ducks will continue their homestand on Tuesday night with the opener of a three-game series and first-ever meeting with the Gastonia Honey Hunters. Game time is slated for 6:35 p.m., with the Fairfield Properties Ballpark gates opening at 5:35 (5:20 for full season ticket holders). The first 1,500 fans in attendance will receive Ducks Baseball Caps, courtesy of Stony Brook Children&rsquos. It&rsquos also a Triple Play Tuesday at the ballpark! If the Ducks turn a triple play during the game, one lucky fan will win $25,000. To be eligible to win, simply sign up prior to first pitch at the Ticket Kiosk. Right-hander Vin Mazzaro (1-0, 4.40) gets the start for the Ducks against Honey Hunters righty William Kirwan (1-2, 6.00).

Tickets to the game, and all Ducks home games, are available by calling (631) 940-TIXX or by CLICKING HERE. Those unable to make the game can follow all the action on the Long Island Ducks Broadcast Network. Live streaming video and audio will be available via BoxCast on LIDucks.com as well as the Ducks official Facebook and YouTube accounts.

The Long Island Ducks are members of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball, a Professional Partner League of Major League Baseball, and play their home games at Fairfield Properties Ballpark. For further information, visit LIDucks.com or call (631) 940-DUCK (3825).

About the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball (ALPB)


Six years ago, Boko Haram kidnapped 276 schoolgirls. Where are they now?

The 'Chibok girls’ kidnapping sparked international outrage. More than a hundred are still missing. Today the survivors are trying to rebuild their lives.

Patience Bulus and Esther Joshua held hands as they were marched out of their dorm room at gunpoint that April night. Herded into the back of an open-bed truck, they lost their grip on each other. Amid the mass of frightened students, Patience heard Esther’s soft voice ask, “What will happen?”

Then someone jumped off the side. Suddenly other girls were tumbling into the darkness, willing to risk being shot or lost in the unknown forest to flee their captors. Patience looked next to her, but Esther had been pulled deeper into the truck. Patience pushed her way to the edge and jumped without Esther.

For five years a rebel insurgency in northeastern Nigeria had terrorized the region and shut down schools. The Government Secondary School for girls in Chibok had reopened in April 2014 for students to take their final exams. In a region where less than half of all girls attend primary school, these students had defied the odds they were born into long before the war reached them. But around 11 p.m. on April 14, trucks of militants from Boko Haram, whose name roughly translates to “Western education is forbidden,” forced 276 girls from their dorms onto trucks and drove toward the lawless cover of the Sambisa forest, a nature reserve the jihadist group had taken over to wage a bloody war against the government.

The attack sparked #BringBackOurGirls, an international campaign embraced by then U.S. First Lady Michelle Obama. Chibok, a remote, little-known town before the kidnappings, came to represent some of Nigeria’s most crucial issues—corruption, insecurity, the invisibility of the poor. Media covered every development: The 57 girls who escaped early on the ordeal of 10 of the girls who wound up in multiple American schools videos released by Boko Haram showing sullen captives two emotional releases of a total of 103 girls, reportedly in exchange for money and prisoners four girls who are said to have fled later on their own.

Of the 276 Chibok students kidnapped, 112 are still missing. Some are believed to be dead. Two and a half years ago, the government arranged for more than a hundred survivors to study at a tightly controlled campus in northeastern Nigeria. Since then, there’s been relative silence.

Patience spent the summer after the abduction in her village of Askira, listening to gospel music and coming to terms, she says, with the idea that the attack had ended her education. Esther’s mother came to visit once, but Patience wasn’t at home. Journalists wanted to know what happened that night parents asked if she’d seen their missing daughters. Repeating the story of April 14 had become exhausting.

Patience and nine other survivors accepted an offer to study in the United States. She embraced the opportunity, even though neighbors in her village warned her parents that young women get into trouble far from home.

Around the same time Patience was preparing to move abroad, a school security guard visited Margee Ensign, president of the American University of Nigeria (AUN) campus in Yola, a city of several hundred thousand people. She told Ensign that her sister and 56 other girls had escaped shortly after the attack.

Some had jumped from the trucks, grabbed tree branches, twisted their ankles, and then run until they found help. Others, such as Mary K. (who asked that only her last initial be used), had ridden with the kidnappers for hours. When the truck stopped, Mary conspired with her classmates in their local dialect: They’d split into groups of two, ask to use the bathroom, and then run. The kidnappers, arguing among themselves, failed to find them. It took Mary 24 hours to get home, and when she finally did, she found her village engulfed in fighting. Ensign and her staff drove to Chibok and returned with two vans of survivors who wanted to continue their education at AUN.

“We weren’t ready,” Ensign recalls. “Boko Haram was still in the area. But it wasn’t a hard decision.” Two dozen students settled into the university’s campus, encircled by a high wall and secured by guards in crisp, red uniforms. The prestigious school attracts children of government ministers and ambassadors, and Ensign knew the students from Chibok—who came from poor-quality government schools, spoke almost no English, and had just survived a terrorist attack—would be at a serious disadvantage.

Ensign called a meeting and appointed a tall, no-nonsense Detroit native named Reginald Braggs to help them finish high school. He set up the New Foundation School (NFS), a tailor-made program to prepare the 24 young women from Chibok for college. It offered extracurriculars like music lessons and shopping trips. Seniors from the university’s honor society mentored them.

Over the next two years, none of the missing students were released. Rumors of nightmare conditions in captivity—forced marriages, enslavement, starvation—were omnipresent. Then, in May 2016, Chibok student Amina Ali escaped from the forest with her baby. Five months later, Nigeria’s government reportedly offered Boko Haram cash and prisoners for the release of 21 girls. Severely malnourished, they were taken to a hospital in Abuja, the capital, to be assessed by a psychiatrist, physician, sports therapist, imam, and social worker. They said the militants had given them a choice: Convert to Islam and marry, or become slaves. Most chose slavery, the media reported.

In May 2017, 82 more girls were released. Their tearful reunion with their parents was broadcast around the world. In the U.S., Patience Bulus watched news footage, scanning the names of those rescued. Her heart leaped when she landed on Esther Joshua.

Patience recalled the day Esther transferred to Chibok from another school. Patience had sized her up and decided she’d make a perfect sidekick: They were from the same tribe and in their next-to-last year in school. Soon they were inseparable and planned to spend part of the summer of 2014 together at Esther’s house. When Patience learned that her 103 recently freed classmates would join those studying at AUN, she texted a friend: When Esther arrives in Yola, tell her to call me.

Early one September morning in 2017, a chaotic scene unfolded in the domestic terminal of the Abuja airport. More than 100 teenagers tugging large suitcases and taped-up boxes streamed into the departure gate. Alarms screeched as they moved through metal detectors without pausing. A number of policemen began to yell. The teens' muscular security escort pulled an officer aside and leaned in close. “These are the Chibok girls,” he said. None of them had flown commercial before. “Can you allow them through?” he asked. The policeman was surprised but agreed.

Soon the plane touched down in Yola, a hot, dusty city in northern Nigeria. The group piled into eight buses and was delivered to the campus of AUN.

That morning, the university went from housing and educating 24 Chibok students to 130. The young women settled into a quiet existence of studying and praying. Esther was intimidated by the busy university. In Chibok, there had been no laptops or yoga or karaoke nights. In Yola, recreation rooms were outfitted with televisions, plush couches, and motivational sayings painted on the walls. The dorm was divided into four “houses,” each named for a famous woman.

Soon after Esther arrived, another student passed on Patience’s message. On the phone, Esther told Patience everything that had happened in the forest and swore her to secrecy. “Don’t let it stop you,” Patience advised. “This is our best opportunity to make something good.”

In a four-bed dorm room, Esther stacked her new books onto shelves and emptied her suitcase into the wardrobe. Her new computer quickly filled up with selfies and pictures that Patience sent over WhatsApp.

At first the new students kept to themselves, eating in their own building and going to the gym early on Saturdays. Before long, they began dining in the main cafeteria, and some attended classes in the library.

But they are not regular students. Boko Haram pledged to kill them if they returned to school. Guards watch their building and follow them whenever they leave. On campus they have a 24/7 support system: 11 student affairs “aunties” who live in the dorms, a nurse, and a walk-in psychologist’s office. Some have bullets and shrapnel still lodged in their bodies. One has a prosthetic leg. Another walks with a cane. Most spent nearly three years in captivity and wrestle with lingering trauma. AUN officials say the protection is necessary. But some see it as sheltering them.

“After they were first released, they were kept together by the government in some facility in Abuja. After that, they were shipped off to AUN,” said Anietie Ewang, the Nigeria researcher at Human Rights Watch who has closely followed the case. “It feels like at every stage they’ve been secluded.”

Over the years the students from Chibok have been paraded in front of cameras when it has served a purpose. When they were in Boko Haram captivity, the shocking image of hundreds of girls in gray hijabs was a sign of the once scrappy group’s rise to power. Once they were in government custody, a colorful press conference with the president just a day after their rescue offered the government a political triumph. Now, they are grown women. When will they choose how their story is told?

The Nigerian government and private donors are covering the costs of at least six years of education for each student. Some are eyeing law school. Others plan to become actresses, writers, accountants. Fifteen have graduated from the NFS high school program and are studying at the university.

Mary K., who escaped on the day after the kidnapping, arrived on campus in 2014, unable to speak English. After two years, she was accepted to AUN. The transition wasn’t easy. She knew other students gossiped about her, and thought about transferring to another school. Now she roams campus and seems to know everyone. Once a week she mentors a group of NFS students on how to manage their time, perfect their English, and pass the three standardized tests they need for AUN admission. This year she’s spending a semester abroad, in Rome.

Not all the survivors of Boko Haram’s war have such opportunities. In Borno State, the epicenter of the crisis, classes were canceled for two years. There and in two neighboring states, roughly 500 schools have been destroyed, 800 are closed, and more than 2,000 teachers have been killed.

Fifteen miles from AUN’s campus, Gloria Abuya gets up at 5 a.m. and walks two hours to school from the 2,100-person camp for displaced people where she lives. When Boko Haram militants first arrived in Gloria’s hometown of Gwoza in 2014, they killed the men and ordered their wives to bury the bodies. Later, they took the girls. Gloria spent two months in captivity before escaping one night as her captors prayed.

Many women held prisoner by Boko Haram return to communities that fear them and families that shun them. Gloria doesn’t know when, if ever, she can resume her old life. “There’s nothing left at home to go back to,” she said.

In May 2019, a week before the start of their summer vacation, the Chibok students prepared to mark the anniversary of their release from captivity. “It’s very sad because we remember our sisters in the forest,” said Amina Ali, as she dressed for dinner after a day of rehearsals for the day’s events. “And here we are, happy.”

The next day the drama club performed a play in which two girls were kidnapped for ransom and their families fought to bring them back. The script poked fun at ineffective police, lazy elected officials, and greedy kidnappers. When the captives were freed and reunited with their families, the audience burst into applause. At the end, a row of students read messages for their missing classmates before a balloon release.

“Dear sister, I know the angels are watching over you.”

“Dear sister, I feel you walk beside me.”

“Dear sister, I can’t wait to see you again.”

Three families of missing girls who live in Abuja say they have no number to call for updates, have no warning before news comes out, and have had no contact with the government since a tense meeting with President Muhammadu Buhari in 2016. The government now rarely comments. Last April, the fifth anniversary of the abduction, Buhari released a message assuring Nigerians that “diverse efforts are being intensified to secure the release of the Chibok girls.”

Even now, there are so many mysteries about the night of April 14, 2014: Why did the military claim the girls had been freed shortly after the attack? Is it true that a British Air Force mission located the missing girls in the Sambisa forest and offered to rescue them, but the Nigerian government declined? (The then president has denied these reports.) Why have the kidnappings not stopped? Since Chibok, 300 elementary schoolchildren were reportedly abducted in Damasak, and 110 boarding school girls were kidnapped in Dapchi. (Some students died in the Dapchi attack, and later all but one were freed.)

“Look at the area,” said Hamsatu Allamin, an activist from northern Nigeria who's spent a decade documenting the war’s dead and disappeared, of the sparse landscape around Chibok. “There are no roads, no trees, nothing. How can they just disappear?” She has petitioned for an outside investigation, but none is forthcoming. Billions of dollars have poured into Nigeria to combat Boko Haram and help rescue the missing. These girls, and the international attention they attracted, she said, have become a business. “Boko Haram is a complete moneymaking venture for our leaders, the army, and the kidnappers.”

In a small office in Abuja, Allamin named emptied towns, groups of unknown children who've disappeared, abducted convoys, bride kidnappings. She held her head in her hands and squeezed her eyes shut. UNICEF estimates 1,000 children have been abducted since 2013, and the Red Cross says 22,000 people have been reported missing in the conflict. Allamin believes the figure is much higher. “When you want to destroy a society,” she said, “target the women.”


April

Easter Parade - Manhattan

Easter Sunday
From Central Park down to Rockefeller Center on 50th Street, New Yorkers dress up in outrageous Easter bonnets. There's also an Eggstravaganza, a children's festival including an egg-rolling contest on the Great Lawn in Central Park.

Easter Parade and Bonnet Festival

April 21, 2019
Wear an extravagant hat or festive costume and join the people strolling on Fifth Avenue from 49th to 57th Streets in the Easter Parade and Bonnet Festival. It is usually described in the official street closures as “Easter Sunday Mass” from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. Free.

National Tartan Day Parade - Manhattan

In 1998 the U.S. Senate declared April 6 to be National Tartan Day to recognize the contributions made by Scottish-Americans to the United States and a small parade was held the following year. Since then, this annual parade has grown to include hundreds of pipers, thousands of marchers, dancers and many more thousands cheering from the sidelines, all a part of a week-long celebration. The parade route runs along 6th Avenue from 44th Street to 55th Street.

Persian Parade - Manhattan

Persian New Year - mid April
Persian Parade is an annual New York City parade founded in 2004 by a group of Persian American immigrants who wanted to keep the Persian culture and traditions of their homeland alive. The New York Persian Parade is staged in the middle of the traditional two-week period of celebration for Nowruz, the Persian New Year. The parade route runs along Madison Avenue, approximately 38th Street to 27th Street. Parade Info: (877) PARADE1.

Celebrate Israel Parade - Manhattan

Late May/Early June
In 1965, thousands walked down Riverside Drive in support of the young State of Israel. This impromptu walk evolved into the Salute to Israel Parade, now known as the Celebrate Israel Parade, on Fifth Avenue. The Parade features over 30,000 marchers from many organizations. Hundreds of thousands enthusiastic spectators watch American and Israeli community leaders and dignitaries, entertainers, artists, musicians, dancers, celebrities, floats and marching bands. The parade route is along 5th Avenue, from 57th Street to 74th Street. Parade Info: (212) 983-4800.

Cinco de Mayo Parade - Manhattan

Sunday near May 5
The Cinco de Mayo Parade is an amazing celebration of music, dance and culture of the Mexico. The parade route runs along Central Park West from 97th Street to 106th Street.

Kings County Memorial Day Parade - Brooklyn

Last Monday in May
Brooklyn has hosted the Kings County Memorial Day Parade each year since 1867, remembering all of those who died in service to our country. It is considered to be the oldest, continuously run Memorial Day Parade in the nation. This parade brings together veterans, marching bands, Irish pipers, contingents from the New York fire and police departments and more. The parade begins at 78th Street and Third Avenue and ends at John Paul Jones Park (101st Street and Fourth Avenue). When the parade is over, a memorial service is held at the park. Parade Info: (347) 907-9547.

Bronx Week (Parade)

May 9 - 19, 2019
Bronx Week [very slow website] includes a breakfast, neighborhood tours, Bronx Ball, parade, and a food & arts festival.

New York Dance Parade - Manhattan

Mid May
Dance Parade’s mission is to inspire dance through the celebration of diversity. The annual parade features over 10,000 dancers converging on the streets of New York City showcasing at least 75 styles of dance perhaps the world’s largest display of cultural diversity. The parade route runs from Broadway at 21st Street, south to 8th Street, then east to Tompkins Square. A dance festival follows. Parade/Festival Info: (267) 350-9213.

Norwegian-American 17th of May Parade - Brooklyn

Sunday closest to May 17
With the 17th of May Parade, Norwegian-Americans celebrate the Constitution Day of Norway. On this day in 1814, Norway's Constitution was signed, establishing a free and democratic country. This May 17 celebration is also associated with Spring and the coming of Summer — after the long winter season of the North. The parade features floats, bands, civic and political organizations, authentic Norwegian costumes, Vikings, Miss Norway and more. The parade begins at 80th Street and Third Avenue, following Third Avenue, Bay Ridge Avenue, Fifth Avenue and 67th Street.

Brooklyn Pride Parade - Brooklyn

The Brooklyn Pride Parade is a part of Pride Week, hosted by Brooklyn Pride, Inc. In addition to the parade, Pride Week features a festival, 5K run, stage entertainments, kids & family activities and more. Founded in 1996, Booklyn Pride aims to foster a spirit of solidarity and celebration throughout the borough. The parade route runs along 5th Avenue from Lincoln Place to 9th Street. Note that this is a rare evening parade, followed by a Brooklyn Pride After-Party. Parade/Festival Info: (718) 928-3320.

Coney Island Mermaid Parade - Coney Island

Saturday near June 21
The Mermaid Parade celebrates the start of summer. The parade typically attracts a couple thousand participants and hundreds of thousands of spectators. At this hilarious event, participants dress like mermaids and King Neptune and saunter down the Coney Island boardwalk, after which everyone throws fruit into the sea. Parade Info: (718) 392-1267.

Hunts Point Fish Parade - Bronx

Mid June
The Hunts Point Fish Parade is a mile-long procession through the streets of Hunts Point featuring a caravan of marchers and colorful "floats" created by visual and performance artists from the South Bronx incorporating issues of environmental awareness and community advocacy. The parade begins at Hunts Point Riverside Park and culminates at Barretto Point Park at the block-long Hunts Point Summer Festival, featuring a main stage, live entertainment, info and activities by local groups. Parade/Festival Info: (718) 542-4139.

National Puerto Rican Day Parade - Manhattan

2nd Sunday in June
The National Puerto Rican Day Parade is held on the second Sunday in June, in honor of the nearly four million inhabitants of Puerto Rico and all people of Puerto Rican birth or heritage residing in the mainland U.S. The parade, featuring floats, celebrities and elected officials, marches along Fifth Avenue from 44th Street to 86th Street and has grown to become one of the largest parades in New York City, with nearly two million spectators annually making it one of the largest outdoor events in the United States.

Philippine Independence Day Parade - Manhattan

Early June
The Philippine Independence Day Parade is a celebration for the Filipino American community in the Northeast United States, home to more than half a million Filipinos. Its main purpose is to create awareness of Philippine culture and to raise funds for charity projects in the USA and the Philippines. The parade route is along Madison Avenue, from 38th Street to 27th Street.

Pride Parade - Manhattan

Late June
The first March was held in 1970 and has since become an annual civil rights demonstration. Over the years its purpose has broadened to include recognition of the fight against AIDS and to remember those we have lost to illness, violence and neglect. The March is a celebration of our lives and our community. The parade includes over 325 unique marching contingents, representing a vast array of non-profits, community organizations, corporate sponsors, small businesses, political candidates and activists! The parade begins at 36th Street and 5th Avenue and ends at Christopher & Greenwich Streets. The Pride Parade is part of Pride Week, which includes Family Night Movie, a kick-off rally and concert, PrideFest and much more. More Info: (212) 80-PRIDE.

Queens Pride Parade - Queens

Early June
The first Queens Pride march was held in 1993, and since, this parade and festival have grown tremendously, attracting more than 40,000 spectators. It is the second largest Pride celebration in the New York metropolitan area. Queens Pride continues to promote the visibility and accomplishments of the LGBT community and to foster acceptance by the many cultures and religions represented in our borough. The parade route is along 37th Avenue from 89th Street to 75th Street. A festival follows the parade at 75th Street and 37th Road with entertainment throughout the afternoon, vendors, food and informative business, community and social group booths are located throughout the festival site.

Mermaid Parade

June 22, 2019
The Mermaid Parade has 1000 people wearing glittery semi-nude costumes, floats with aquatic themes, and classic cars that drive east along Surf Avenue, and then west along the boardwalk on Coney Island in Brooklyn. Expect crowds. Free.

Flower Parade - Queens

Early July
Flower Parade/ Desfile de las Flores
Northern BLVD between 69th street and 88th street, Jackson Heights, NY

The annual Flower Parade will include 8 ft tall floral ornaments called "silletas" carried by Colombian silleteros, flower floats, dance performances, live music, antique cars, the Flower Queen, giveaways, and much more. email: [email protected]


How to write the date correctly

What is the correct date format in English? How you do this usually depends on whether you write a formal letter or an informal note or whether your use the British or American date format. As you can see from the examples below, there are a number of ways in which you can write the same date. A general rule: the more complicated the style of date, the more formal it is.

The date format in British English

In British English, which is mainly used in Australia, the day is followed by the month, which is then followed by the year. The 6th day of the month September, in the year 2019, might be written in full (in order of complexity):

  • 6 Sept
  • 6 September
  • 6 September 2019
  • 6th September 2019
  • the 6th of September 2019
  • the 6th of September, 2019

The last two date formats are more formal. The “the” and “of” are optional but if you do use them, you must add both “the” and “of.” It is incorrect to say only “6th of September” or “the 6th September.”

As for the year, commas are not necessary when you write the date in British English, but you can if you prefer this style.

If you wish to add the name of the day, it should come before the date, and should either be separated by a comma or joined by “the” and “of.”

How to write the date in numbers?

If you prefer to abbreviate the date, you can use the following style in British English. Again, the day comes first, then the month, then the year.

The most commonly used separator in the all-numeric date format is a forward slash (/). However, you can also use a hyphen (-) or a period (.).

The date format in American English

When you prefer to write the date in American English, usually the month comes before the day, then followed by the year. If we use the same example as before: The 6th day of the month September, in the year 2019, then the date in American English should be written as:

Dates written as April the 13 th or April 13 th are not incorrect, but are less common in American English.

How to write the date in numbers?

In American English, if you want to write the date in all-numeric, you will need to use the following style. Here, too, the month comes first, then the day, then the year.

Other date formats

The International Standard

In an effort to avoid miscommunication between people using the British date format and those using the American date format, an International Standard was developed. If an Australian writes February 3, 2019 as 03/02/2019, but an American writes the same date as 02/03/2019, who’s right? The international standard recommends writing the date as year, then month, then the day: YYYY-MM-DD. So if both the Australian and American used this, they would both write the date as 2019-02-03.

Writing the date this way avoids confusion by placing the year first. Much of Asia uses this form when writing the date. For example:

January 1, 2018 would be written as 2018 January 1. (Did you notice there’s no comma?).

Using the correct date format for IELTS

Whatever the format, in British English, dates are usually written in the order day – month – year, while in American English they are written month – day – year. For IELTS, you can use both date formats.

The correct date format for IELTS Writing

For IELTS, it doesn’t matter if you use American English spelling, or British English. Both are acceptable. However, you should pay attention to the tone of your letter: writing an email to a friend is different than writing a formal letter to your employer. The use of your date format should be appropriate to tone of the letter. For example, in a formal letter, you wouldn’t use contractions (you should write cannot instead of can’t, or would not instead of wouldn’t). If the IELTS Writing task tells you to start with “Dear Sir or Madam” (which indicates it’s a formal letter), you should try to use a formal date-style.

  • IELTS Writing tip: With the exception of May and June, months can be shortened as follows: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, Jul, Aug, Sept, Oct, Nov, Dec.

In formal American English or British English, you never want to omit the year (eg. 20 November or November 20). You also want to avoid a purely numerical form for the date (eg. 20/11/2019 or 11/20/2019). For example, if you were to write a formal business letter, you’d write out the entire date, including the full month. In British English, you could write the date as 6th September 2019. In American English, you could use September 6, 2019.

Dates in informal writing

If your task requires a less formal response (for example a letter to a friend), a shorter date format can be used. This typically uses only numbers separated by full stops or slashes, rather than writing out the month. Shortening the year is also acceptable, such as in the following:

You can also write out the date but shorten the month to save space:

If you’re not sure about your IELTS Writing, get in touch with the professionals and get some coaching to increase your IELTS score.

The correct date format for IELTS Listening

The first tip for your listening test: Be careful to note word limits. If there is an instruction in the question: “Write no more than two words,” writing more than two words will mean you will receive no marks at all for your answer, even if some of the words are correct.

When you are writing dates as an answer to any question, remember that there are several correct ways to write them (e.g. 24th April, April 24 and 24 April are all correct).

A second tip: When writing the date in the IELTS Listening test you can write dates as numbers such as 19/02 or 02/19 (for 19 February). This eliminates spelling mistakes and complies with questions that only allow 1-word answers.

Need some further practice with IELTS Listening? Check our free online preparation material or attend an IELTS Masterclass near you.

The correct date format for IELTS Speaking

Saying a date in English is sometimes different from how you would write the date. In spoken English we always use ordinal numbers for dates. Ordinal numbers are numbers that show the order or sequence. Normally a “th” appears at the end of the number. For example, four fourth (or 4 4th) and two second (or 2 2nd).

As you’ve seen before, in written English you may write a normal (cardinal) number without the “th” or “st” etc. after it. Even if it is not written, the ordinal number is still said in spoken English. In American English it is not common to put the -th after the number in written English.

  • Speaking test tip: Practise the pronunciation of numbers to be sure that your meaning is clear. For example, many numbers can sound very similar when spoken, so be sure to say them clearly, e.g. ‘Thirty’ and ‘Thirteen’, ‘Forty’ and ‘Fourteen’, ‘Fifty’ and ‘Fifteen’, etc.

Let’s have a look at how you can say the date correctly in your IELTS Speaking test:

  • 30 March 1993
    American English: ‘March the thirtieth, nineteen ninety-three’ or ‘March thirtieth, nineteen ninety-three’
    British English: ‘the thirtieth of March, nineteen ninety-three’
  • 1 December 2017
    American English: ‘December the first, twenty seventeen’ or ‘December first, two thousand and seventeen’
    British English: ‘the first of December, twenty seventeen’
How do you say years in English?

When you are talking about years, this is how you would say the year correctly in English:

  • 1100 = ‘eleven hundred’
  • 1309 = ‘thirteen hundred and nine’ or ‘thirteen ‘oh’ nine’
  • 1678 = ‘sixteen (hundred and) seventy-eight’
  • 1910 = ‘nineteen (hundred and) ten’
  • 1946 = ‘nineteen (hundred and) forty-six’
  • 2000 = ‘two thousand’
  • 2007 = ‘two thousand and seven’ or ‘twenty ‘oh’ seven’
  • 2019 = ‘two thousand and nineteen’ or ‘twenty nineteen’

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In specific languages

Germanic

Afrikaans

Modern Afrikaans rarely makes the distinction between the informal "jy" and "jou" ("you" subject and "your" / "you" object) and the more formal "u" (or "U" when addressing God), although sometimes it is upheld in a formal setting, such as in politics, business or in a polite conversation. The trend is moving towards using the informal pronoun most often.

Dutch

Old Dutch did not appear to have a T–V distinction. Thu was used as the second-person singular, and gi as the second-person plural. In early Middle Dutch, influenced by Old French usage, the original plural pronoun gi (or ji in the north) came to be used as a respectful singular pronoun, creating a T–V distinction. However, the formal gi started to be used in more and more situations. By the 17th century, du had largely fallen out of use, although it lingered on in some of the more peripheral areas. At this point, the original T–V distinction had been lost, and the original V-pronoun gij/jij was used universally for both singular and plural regardless of the type of address. This resembled the state of English today, which has also (outside of dialectal, literary or religious use) lost its original T-pronoun thou.

Around this time, a new formal pronoun u started to come into use. This was also the object form of the subject pronoun gij/jij, and how it came to be used as a subject pronoun is not exactly clear. It is usually related to a form of address in writing of the time: letters were often addressed formally to U.E., standing for Uwe Edelheid ("Your Highness"), which is thought to have been shortened to u eventually. It can be compared to the Spanish usted, which is a similar contraction of a phrase of indirect address. As in Spanish, the Dutch u was originally conjugated as the third person in verbs, although most verbs had identical second- and third-person singular forms, so that this difference was not apparent for the most part. It remains today in the use of u heeft ("you (formal) have", like hij heeft "he has"), compared to jij hebt ("you (informal) have"). However, u hebt is now also common.

Around the same time, it became more common to clarify when multiple people were being spoken to, by adding luyden, lieden, or a shortened variety, to the end of the pronoun. Thus, when speaking to multiple people, one would use jij luyden or je lieden. This combination was contracted and fused over time, eventually resulting in jullie, the informal plural pronoun that is used today. It can be compared, in its origin, to the English y'all or Spanish vosotros.

Modern northern Dutch, and usually standard Dutch as well, has two forms of second person pronouns, namely jij and u. U is the formal pronoun, whereas jij is used as the informal personal pronoun to address a single person. In the plural, u is also used, alongside the informal jullie. In the south, only one pronoun, gij, is generally used in all three roles: both singular and plural, formal and informal. U is sometimes also used in formal situations, but the southern gij does not have a distinct informal connotation like the northern/standard jij, and can be used to address anyone without offence. Religious Dutch speakers in all areas address God using either Gij or U jij is never used. For speakers of the north, this is usually the only place where gij is encountered, giving it a formal and archaic tone, even though it is neutral in the southern areas where it is still used.

The pronoun je (unstressed variant of jij) can also be used impersonally, corresponding to the English generic you. The more formal Dutch term corresponding to English generic you or one is men.

In Dutch the formal personal pronoun is used for older people or for people with a higher or equal status, unless the addressed makes it clear they want to be spoken to with the informal pronoun. Unlike for example in German, there is no defined line (in the case of German, roughly when someone passes the age of 16) in which everyone, apart from family, is addressed with the formal pronoun. Addressing parents by u has become very rare jij is often even used to address grandparents. There is also a tendency towards more use of the informal pronoun. Some companies such as Ikea consciously address their customers with the informal jij. However, u can still be considered more or less obligatory in situations where, for example, a pupil addresses his teacher, people testify in court or communication between a doctor and his patient.

English

Old English used þū [29] in the second-person singular for both formal and informal contexts. Following the Norman Conquest, the Middle English that emerged continued to use þou [30] at first, but by the 13th century, Norman French influence had led to the use of the second-person plural ȝe or ye in formal contexts.

In Early Modern English superiors and strangers were therefore respectfully addressed as "ye" in the nominative and "you" in the objective "thou" and "thee" were used for familiars and subordinates. The more widespread and observed this division became, the more pejorative it became to strangers to be called by the familiar form of address. By the 17th century, such a use among the nobility was strongly and deliberately contemptuous, as in the declamation of the prosecutor at Sir Walter Raleigh's 1603 trial "I thou thee, thou traitor!" Accordingly, the use of "thou" began to decline and it was effectively extinct in the everyday speech of most English dialects by the early 18th century, supplanted by the polite "you", even when addressing children and animals, something also seen in Dutch and Latin America (most of Brazil and parts of Spanish America). Meanwhile, as part of English's continuing development away from its synthetic origins since the influx of French vocabulary following the Norman invasion, "you" had been replacing "ye" since the 15th century. English was left with a single second-person pronoun for all cases, numbers and contexts and largely incapable of maintaining a T–V distinction. [31] Notwithstanding all of this, the translators of the King James version of the Bible chose to employ the older forms in their work (1604–1611) in order to convey the grammatical distinctions made by their Hebrew, Greek and Latin sources. Its subsequent popularity and the religious rationale of many [33] who continued to employ "thou" has preserved its use in English, but made it seem pious and (ironically) more formal and respectful than the everyday "you".

Frisian

In Frisian, the formal singular nominative jo (pronounced yo) is very close to the English you and the Middle and Early Modern English ye.

German

Sie and du

In German, the formal address Sie is the same as the third person plural pronoun sie. Verbs used with this form of address are also identical to third person plural forms. The polite form and its inflected forms are always capitalized in writing, to avoid any ambiguity.

The corresponding informal German address is du. The verbs duzen and siezen mean respectively "to thou" and "to address using you" and the phrases per du or auf du und du mean, "to be on du terms". The use of Sie often coincides with the use of the title plus surname, [34] usage of which is more widespread in German-speaking areas than Anglophone areas. [34] In general terms, du is used to children, animals and God, and between adults (or between adults and children) who are good friends of or closely related to each other. Sie is used in other situations, such as in a business situation or where no existing relationship exists. [34] In Internet chats and forums, Germans rarely use Sie, although there are exceptions. Except in the case of adults addressing children, where it is common for the child to address the adult as Sie, but be addressed as du in return, it is not common in German for one party to address the other as Sie, but be addressed as du in return. [34] In almost all cases it can be considered as impolite to use the "wrong" pronoun, i. e. a pronoun that is not expected by the other party.

High school students in Germany are often called Sie plus given name ("Hamburger Sie") by their teachers when they enter the Oberstufe – the last 2 or 3 years of high school – around the age of 16.

Children and teenagers are expected to address all adults who are not family members or family friends whom the child has known since they were very young, as Sie. Street and similar social workers, sports clubs trainers will sometimes tell children and teens to address them with du. In shops, bars, and other establishments, if they target a younger audience, it is becoming increasingly common for customers and staff to address each other as du, to the degree that it is sometimes considered awkward if a waitress and a customer who are both in their twenties call each other Sie.

The use of du or Sie between two strangers may also be determined by the setting in which they meet (casual/formal), as well as clothing (casual/formal), gender (same/opposite), and personal preference. For example, it is customary to use du in traditional small pubs and taverns in certain regions (including the Rhineland). This applies also to older people, whom one would otherwise address as Sie. Two people who addressed each other as du in a pub may go back to Sie when they meet in the street if their acquaintance was only very superficial. During the famous Rhenish carnival, it is customary for most revelers to address each other as du. Only if the age difference is more than one generation, the younger person might still use Sie. Another setting in which du is often used between adults is sporting events. As a learned social trait, one person would normally use "Sie", while he or she asks the other person if it is acceptable to be addressed informally, and then act accordingly.

Being per du has also become increasingly common in workplace environments (depending on the line of business and corporate culture to varying degrees), mostly regardless of age. In such environments, the du basis may also be observed as a (sometimes necessary) mark of good social integration within a working group. As a rule of thumb, one might expect to see team colleagues on the workplace level in many industries on a customary du basis with each other, though not always with the group manager and more rarely with higher-ranking managers. As entrants to a team are more closely integrated, this is often marked by making an informal affirmation to that basis or by formally offering it, as a matter of style and habituality. Both the tempo and extent of using the du basis depends much on the culture (and sometimes the climate) of the business, and in some places even more so on that of the particular workgroup itself. Business cultures that pride themselves on a "flat hierarchy" are more likely to adopt or accent a general professional parlance of du and given name while inside corporations tending to emphasize professional formality, a Sie may be expected to be used always except between very close colleagues or inside closed groups (sometimes including managers meeting on the same level with the exclusion of any subordinates), and strictly always in the presence of a superior. The superior, on the other hand, has the right to address the other perform informally or formally, which is a personal preference.

Customarily, the switch from Sie to du is initially proposed by the elder of the two people, the person with socially higher standing or by the lady to the gentleman. One way to propose the use of du rather than Sie is by stating one's first name (as in: Ich heiße. ). One accepts the proposal by introducing one's own first name. Should a person later forget that they have adopted du, it is polite to remind them by saying, Wir waren doch per du (We moved on to 'du' terms). Sometimes switching back to Sie is used as a method of distancing oneself from the addressee the connotation is slightly ironic courtesy. In Germany, an old custom (called Bruderschaft trinken, drinking brotherhood) involves two friends formally sharing a bottle of wine or drinking a glass of beer together to celebrate their agreement to call one another du rather than Sie. This custom has also been adopted among the Swiss-French of the Jura, in Poland and Russia (called by its German name, spelled bruderszaft and брудершафт respectively), though the custom in Poland is now slowly disappearing. It was formerly found also in Sweden.

Although the use of Sie generally coincides with the use of title plus surname, especially in northern and eastern Germany, there is an intermediate address combining Sie with the first name ("Hamburger Sie"), whereas in the Berlin region, sometimes Du is combined with the surname ("Berliner Du"). The former usage also occurs when addressing teenagers, household staff, or guests of TV or radio programs, while the latter style is usually considered inferior and mainly occurs in working class environments. It may be associated with professional contexts, when colleagues have known one another for a long time, but, e. g. due to differences of status, do not want to switch to the usual Du style or in situations where strangers (e.g. customers) are present for whom it would not be appropriate to learn the first name of the addressee.

When speaking to more than one person in formal situations, Sie is used in standard German, although ihr can often be heard instead, especially in the South of Germany. Usage varies when addressing a group containing both du and Sie persons from the speaker's point of view. Some speakers use the informal plural ihr, others prefer the formal Sie and many, concerned that both pronouns might cause offence, prefer to use circumlocutions that avoid either pronoun.

Historical predecessors: Ihr and Er/Sie

Formerly, the 2nd person plural Ihr ("ye") was used to address social superiors, unless more informal relations had been established. "Ihr" in this case has to be capitalized. However, Ihr itself shows a degree of informality, and would for example be used in addressing one's father. For the formal address, the third person would be used and this in the singular with Er, Sie (capitalized) to a social inferior, as a farmer addressing a stableboy, or in the plural to a social superior. It is from the latter occurrences that modern "Sie" takes its origin "Sie" is the 3rd person plural pronoun. However, "Sie" itself is relatively young, and it was rather the formal addresses, often itself singular forms, that took the plural. Even as late as in Dürrenmatt's "The Visit" (written in 1956), an address "Das wissen Herr Bürgermeister schon" ("You do know that, Mr. Mayor", modern German would just say "Das wissen Sie schon") can be found Herr Bürgermeister is the formal address and itself a singular term, but wissen is plural. However, if the formal address itself contains a personal pronoun as in "Seine Majestät" (His Majesty) etc., this one would be put to the 2nd person plural: "Was geruhen Euer (not: Seine) Majestät zu befehlen?" ("What does [but plural] Your Majesty condescend to order?")

Thus, all these go by a similar grammar rule pertaining to the verb used with these addresses as modern Sie. The dated capitalized address Ihr demands the same verb form as the modern second person plural pronoun ihr, the dated Er/Sie demands the same verb form as the modern third person singular er and sie, and the dated 3rd person plural address without "Sie" demands, just as "Sie" itself, the same verb form as the 3rd person plural pronoun "sie" (they).

The forms are still found today in some dialects as a respectful way of addressing elders, and is still very often found in works of art and literature (such as books and movies) depicting events at least several centuries in the past, or in a "past-like" fantasy setting, even if modern German is otherwise used in these works indeed, using the modern Sie in such a setting would be considered an out-of-place anachronism. "Ihr" and the 3rd person plural without "Sie" is somewhat analogous to the English majestic plural.

The "Er, Sie" form is not widely known or understood by the average person any more. While Ihrzen is often still used in dubbed films, especially in medieval/fantasy contexts such as Lord of the Rings e.g. " Ihr habt das Reich der Herrin des Waldes betreten, Ihr könnt nicht umkehren." In English: "you have entered the Realm of Lady of the Wood, you can not turn back". In this context, a historical level is used where the second person plural indicates some nobility of or respect for the addressee, such that from Ihr being used to address a single person, the viewer could mostly, without looking, conclude that the person was of elevated rank such as a king or nobleman, or at least being treated with expressed regard. Ihr would not normally be used to address a peasant (unless he is a prince in disguise or a future prince and the person addressing him has gathered some knowledge or presumption of that).

Scandinavian languages

Danish

In Danish, the informal second-person singular is du and the formal form of address uses the third-person plural De, capitalized to distinguish it from its other use. The second-person plural I and the third-person singular han ("he") or hun ("she") were sometimes used until the early 19th century in standard Danish [35] and awhile longer in the countryside. The German-inspired form De entered Danish in the 18th century, too late to enter liturgical use. In church, as in rural or dialect-speaking areas, du has always been the universal form, especially in egalitarian Jutland.

As with other Scandinavian languages, even among the prestige dialects, the formal pronoun is waning in use – in the case of Danish, since the Ungdomsoprøret ("Youth Revolts") during and after the protests of 1968. As a general rule, the informal du is accepted everywhere today, except when addressing royalty [38] or during military service. In other contexts, it has come to seem excessively formal and old-fashioned to most Danes. [40] Even at job interviews and among parliamentarians, [41] du has become standard.

In written Danish, De remains current in legal, legislative, and formal business documents, as well as in some translations from other languages. This is sometimes audience-dependent, as in the Danish government's general use of du except in healthcare information directed towards the elderly, [42] where De is still used. Other times, it is maintained as an affectation, as by the staff of some formal restaurants, the Weekendavisen newspaper, TV 2 announcers, and the avowedly conservative Maersk corporation. Attempts by other corporations to avoid sounding either stuffy or too informal by employing circumlocutions – using passive phrasing or using the pronoun man ("one") – have generally proved awkward and been ill-received, [43] and (with the notable exception of the national railway DSB) most have opted for the more personable du form.

Icelandic

Modern Icelandic is the Scandinavian dialect closest to Old Norse, which made a distinction between the plural þér and the dual "þið". This distinction continued in written Icelandic the early 1920 when the plural "þér" was also used on formal occasions. The formal usage of "þér" seems to have pushed the dual "þið" to take over the plural so modern Icelandic normally uses "þið" as a plural. However, in formal documents such as by the president "þér" is still used as plural, and the usage of þér as plural and þið as dual is still retained in the Icelandic translation of the Christian scriptures. There are still a number of fixed expressions – particularly religious adages such as "seek and ye shall find" (leitið og þér munuð finna) – and the formal pronoun is sometimes used in translations from a language that adheres to a T–V distinction, but otherwise it appears only when one wants to be excessively formal either from the gravity of the occasion (as in court proceedings and legal correspondence) or out of contempt (in order to ridicule another person's self-importance), and þú is used in all other cases.

Norwegian

In Norwegian, the polite form "De"/"Dem" (Bokmål) and "De"/"Dykk" (Nynorsk) has more or less disappeared in both spoken and written language. Norwegians now exclusively use du, and the polite form does not have a strong cultural pedigree in the country. Until recently, De would sometimes be found in written works, business letters, plays and translations where an impression of formality must be retained. The popular belief that "De" is reserved for the king is incorrect, since according to royal etiquette, the King (and other members of the royal family) will be referred to as "Deres majestet" (bokmål)/"Dykkar majestet" (nynorsk) (Your majesty) or in third person singular as "Hans majestet" (His majesty), "Hennes majestet" (Her majesty), "Kongen" (the King), "Dronningen" (the Queen) and similar.

Norwegians generally refer to one another by first name only, unless the person is better known by full or last name only. This also contributes to the weakening of these pronouns and a general pattern of declining use of polite speech. For example, a student might address his professor by his first name, but would refer to a leading politician by his last name. Norwegian politicians and celebrities are sometimes referred to by their first names, especially in newspaper headlines, while the text of the article most likely would use the person's last name. Nicknames are not very common.

The distinction between Bokmål and Nynorsk exists primarily for written Norwegian (most Norwegians speak dialects that differ from the standard written forms), and the T–V rules are the same for both forms—except that Bokmål uses the third person plural to indicate politeness (as in German), while Nynorsk uses the second person plural (as in French). In both forms, when these pronouns are used to indicate politeness, they are always capitalised (to show deference, and separate them from when they indicate, respectively, the third and second person plural).

Swedish

In Swedish, there has in the last two centuries been a marked difference between usage in Finland Swedish and in Sweden.

In the Swedish of Sweden, the polite Ni was known from earlier epochs, but had come to be considered somewhat careless, bullying or rude instead, an intricate system had evolved in order to prudently step around pronouns almost altogether. Parts of this system began to erode around the Second World War or so, but the essentials held up into the 1960s.

As the twentieth century progressed, this circumlocutive system of addressing, with its innumerable ambiguities and opportunities for unintentional offence, was increasingly felt as a nuisance. In the sixties, the so-called du-reformen ('thou-reform') was carried out. First, authorities and influential circles tried rehabilitating the Ni in a so-called "ni reform"—but most people could not bring themselves to feel civil using that. Then, almost overnight and dubbed the "du reform", the system broke down, and du (noted as informal above) became the accepted way of addressing any one person except royalty.

Addressing royalty went somewhat more slowly from a universal Ers majestät ('Your Majesty'), etc., to that address only on formal occasions, otherwise replaced by third person (singular if the addressee is single) with title (K(on)ungen 'the King', etc.).

These rules still apply, with marginal exceptions. The vast majority of Swedes, including younger people in most or all situations, stick to the du. In order to "alleviate the intrusion" in writing, e.g. in letters or in advertisement, the Du can be capitalized. That usage was most widespread in the early days of universal du address it has become slightly more common again simultaneously with the partial Ni revival.

Finland Swedish has undergone a similar development to mainland Swedish since the 1960s, but slower and slightly less. There, one may have to reckon with influence from the Finnish language, still slightly more conservative. In Finland Swedish, the second person plural form Ni (noted as formal above) was indeed the traditional respectful address to a single person up to the 1970s or so.

Swedish, also, has verbs for the addresses: dua 'to say du ', and nia 'to say ni '.

Scots

In Modern Scots the second person singular nominative thoo ( [ðuː] , Southern Scots [ðʌu] , Shetlandic [duː] ) survived in colloquial speech until the mid 19th century in most of lowland Scotland. It has since been replaced by ye/you in most areas except in Insular Scots where thee ( [ðiː] , Shetlandic [diː] ) is also used, in North Northern Scots and in some Southern Scots varieties. Thoo is used as the familiar form by parents speaking to children, elders to youngsters, or between friends or equals. The second person formal singular ye or you is used when speaking to a superior or when a youngster addresses an elder. The older second person singular possessive thy ( [ðai] ), and thee ( [ði] , Shetlandic [diː] along with thine(s) [dəin(z)] ) still survive to some extent where thoo remains in use.

Yiddish

Yiddish makes use of the second person plural form as the polite form for both singular and plural. In the second person plural form איר (ir) , there is therefore no distinction between formal and informal forms. There is a dialectal pronoun עץ (ets) strictly for informal second-person plural form, but this pronoun is rarely used today and is only found in some dialects of Poland and neighboring regions.

Given that old German dialects were the main influence on the development of the Yiddish language, this form may be recognized with older polite forms of the German language.

Romance languages

French

In most French-speaking regions (Canada is an exception see "North American French" below), a rigid T–V distinction is upheld. With regard to the second person singular, tu is used informally, whereas vous is used to convey formality. (The second person plural is always vous.) The formal vous is expected when encountering any unknown adult under normal circumstances. In general, the switch from vous to tu is "negotiated" on a case-by-case basis it can happen nearly unconsciously, or can be explicitly negotiated. For instance, some couples have been known to call each other vous for some time while dating, and gradually switch to calling each other tu. The verb tutoyer means "address someone with tu-forms, speak informally" by contrast vouvoyer means "address someone with vous forms". Rigidly sticking to vous can become equally awkward in a long-standing relationship.

In certain circumstances, however, tu is used more broadly. For example, new acquaintances who are conscious of having something socially significant in common (e.g., student status, or the same "rank" in some hierarchy) often use tu more or less immediately. In some cases, there may be an explicitly defined practice in a particular company, political party, as to the use of tu and vous. Also, using the vous in conjunction with someone's given name is rather current in France as a less formal way of addressing someone, e.g. at work, among members of an association etc. Children and adolescents generally use tu to speak with someone of their own age, whether known or not. Tu can also be used to show disrespect to a stranger, such as when surprising a thief or cursing other drivers on the road.

Vous may be used to distance oneself from a person one does not want to interact with. Additionally, two people who use tu in their private interactions may consciously switch back to vous in public in order to act appropriately in a formal or professional environment, to play the part in an artificially constructed situation (e.g., co-hosts of a television show), or simply to conceal the nature of their relationship from others.

In families, vous was traditionally used to address older family members. Children were taught to use vous to address their parents, and vous was used until about 1950 between spouses of the higher classes. Former president Jacques Chirac and his wife Bernadette are a prominent example of the continuation of this usage. [44]

When praying, tu is nowadays often used in addressing the deity, though vous was used in Catholic prayers until the Second Vatican Council, and is still used to address the Blessed Virgin Mary. In Louisiana, however, vous is always used to convey a sense of respect and reverence when praying.

In Walloon, the use of which tends, in any case, to be restricted mostly to "familiar" contexts, vos (=vous) is the general usage and is considered informal and friendly. Ti (=tu), on the other hand, is considered vulgar, and its use can be taken as an expression of an aggressive attitude towards the person addressed. This influence from Walloon affects the usage of tu and vous in the French spoken in Belgium, though more so among people accustomed to using Walloon as their everyday language (a tiny minority, mostly in the countryside). The influence of Standard French, particularly as exercised through the mass media, is eroding this particularity among younger French-speakers.

North American French

North American dialects of French, including Quebec French and Acadian French as well as Louisiana Cajun and Creole French, permit and expect a far broader usage of the familiar tu than in Standard French. There are still circumstances in which it is necessary to say vous: in a formal interview (notably for a job) or when addressing people of very high rank (such as judges or prime ministers), senior citizens, between professors and students in universities, towards customers or new acquaintances in a formal setting. As acquaintances become familiar with one another, they may find vous to be unnecessarily formal and may agree to return to the tu with which they are generally more comfortable.

For a number of Francophones in Canada, vous sounds stilted or snobbish, and archaic. Tu is by no means restricted to intimates or social inferiors. There is however an important minority of people, often those who call for a use of standard French in Quebec, who prefer to be addressed as vous. At Radio-Canada (the public broadcaster, often considered as establishing the normative objectives of standard French in Canada), the use of vous is widespread even among colleagues.

Catalan

Catalan uses the singular pronouns tu (informal) and vostè (formal), while vosaltres (informal) and vostès (formal) are used to refer to two or more addressees. The form vós, used instead of tu to address someone respectfully, follows the same concordance rules as the French vous (verbs in second person plural, adjectives in singular), and vostè follows the same concordance rules as the Spanish usted (verbs in 3rd person). Vostè originated from vostra mercè as a calque from Spanish, and replaced the original Catalan form vós.

In some dialects of Catalan, vós is no longer used. Other dialects have a three-way distinction tu/vós/vostè, where vostè is used as a respectful form for elders and respected friends, and vós for foreigners and people whom one does not know well. Vostè is more distant than vós.

Administration uses vós for address to people.

Spanish

In Peninsular, Mexican, and Peruvian Spanish, as in Italian, an original and vos usage similar to French disappeared in the Early Modern period. Today, is used for informal and familiar address while the respectful form is the third-person usted, which can be used to reference anyone in a respectful manner. Scholars argue that usted evolved as a contraction of the Old Spanish Vuestra Merced, which translates as your mercy. In some cases, the title Don is also employed when speaking to a respected older man.

Among Spanish dialects, the situation is muddied by the kingdom's former empire having been created during the middle of this linguistic shift. The area around Colombia's capital Bogotá (although not the city itself) preserve an alternate respectful form sumercé simplified from a different contraction of vuestra merced. In Rioplatense, vos was preserved – but as a replacement for and not as a respectful form of address in Chile and Central America, vos is used in spoken address and is used in print and to express moderate formality, that is, it has essentially switched its function to vos's former role.

In the second-person plural, modern Spanish speakers in most of Iberia employ vosotros informally and (as the third-person plural) ustedes to express respect. In western Andalucia, ustedes is used in both contexts, but its verbs are conjugated in the second-person plural. Throughout the Americas and the Canaries, ustedes is used in all contexts and in the third person.

Portuguese

European Portuguese

In European Portuguese (as well as in Africa, PALOP, and Asia, Timor-Leste and Macau), tu (singular "you") is commonly used as the familiar addressing pronoun, while você is a general form of address vocês (plural both of "tu" and "você") is used for both familiar and general. The forms o senhor and a senhora (plurals os senhores and as senhoras) are used for more formal situations (roughly equivalent to "Mr/Sir" and "Mrs/Madam".) Similarly to some Romance languages (e.g. Italian), "tu" can be omitted because the verb ending provides the necessary information. Not so much so with "você" or "o senhor" / "a senhora" because the verb ending is the same as for the third person (historically, você derives from vossa mercê ("your mercy" or "your grace") via the intermediate forms vossemecê and vosmecê). The second person plural pronoun vós, from Latin vos, is archaic in most of the Portuguese-speaking world, but can be heard in liturgy and has a limited regional use.

Brazilian Portuguese

In Brazilian Portuguese, você and vocês (singular and plural "you", respectively) are used informally, while o senhor and a senhora ("Mr"/"Sir" and "Mrs"/"Madam", plurals os senhores and as senhoras) are used in formal speech. Although now seen as archaic, a senhorita is used when speaking ironically, very formally or when one is demonstrating respect to a superior and it is sometimes replaced by moça ("Lady"). Informal terms of respect to superiors, elders or strangers are seu (abbreviation of senhor), sua (feminine of seu), Dona (feminine of Dom i.e. Don) and madame ("Ma'am"). Moço/rapaz and moça ("Lad"/"Young man" and "Lady") are used by seniors when addressing non-intimate youths and also as an equalizing form among strange youths. Jovem ("youngster") is used in the same manner by elders when addressing strange youths of both genders.

On premises where the atmosphere requires extreme formality like the Senate or different courts, the protocolar forms to address dignitaries Vossa Excelência ("Your Excellence") and Vossa Senhoria ("Your Lordship/Ladyship") can still be heard. In a direct address to a judge or the president, "Vossa Excelência" must follow the vocatives "Meritíssimo/a" ("Your Honour". Literally "full of merit") and "Sr/Sra Presidente" ("Mr/Mrs" President). When addressing an ecclesiastical dignitary the form "Vossa Reverência" ("Your Reverence") is used. Although "Vossa Senhoria" is regarded as protocolar, it is an equalizing form.

In many parts of the geographic extension of the language e.g. most of Southern and Northeastern Brazil, some sociolects of coastal São Paulo, mainly in Greater Santos, colloquial carioca sociolect, mainly among the less educated and some all-social class youths of Greater Rio de Janeiro, and in Uruguay, tu (singular "you" or simply "thou") is used informally, but the plural form is always vocês. For the overwhelmingly majority of people, the pronoun tu is commonly used with the verb conjugated as "você" (third-person singular) rather than in the expected conjugation (second-person singular). Tu is somewhat familiar, even intimate, and should never be addressed to superiors, or strange elders, while você is much more neutral, although equalizing.

The dialect that includes Florianópolis, capital city of Santa Catarina, as well as its shore and inner regions in the proximity like Blumenau, is an exception, as the use of tu is widespread, even addressing formally to an authority or to a superior. It is one of the few dialects in Brazil in which second-person singular agreement is used (along with the relatively conservative dialect of the state of Maranhão).

Italian

In Standard Italian the informal second-person singular pronoun is tu and the formal second-person singular pronoun is Lei (inf. "she", lit. "her"), always used with the third-person singular conjugation of the verb. The pronouns may be freely omitted. [45] Despite lei's original meaning, modern Italian typically concords with the gender of the addressee using feminine adjectives for a male addressee is not especially insulting but sounds confusing, literary or even archaic.

Lei is normally used in formal settings or with strangers, although it implies a sense of distance (even coldness) similar to the French use of vous. Presently Italian adults prefer to employ tu towards strangers until around 30 years old. It is used reciprocally between adults the usage may not be reciprocal when young people address older strangers or otherwise respected people. Students are addressed with tu by their teachers until the end of high school with few exceptions and usually with Lei in universities. Students might use tu with their teachers in elementary school, but switch to Lei from middle school. Tu is the common form of address on the Internet [10] and within some professions – such as journalism and law – as a recognition of comradeship. In the law however the "tu" is only used in informal settings in the courtroom it is used only to small children, if ever any happens to appear there.

The second-person plural pronoun is voi. Its polite counterpart was formerly Loro ("They"), but it is now little used outside of self-consciously formal situations such as expensive restaurants. Voi is the traditional polite form of address in Tuscan dialects: Dante employs it in his 14th-century Divine Comedy when showing particular respect. [46] Lei began to replace it during the Renaissance and then, under Spanish influence, it became common to contract obsequious honorifics such as "Your Lordship", "Eminence", and "Majesty", all of which are feminine third-person singular nouns in Italian (Vostra Signoria, Eminenza, Maestà). Over the next four centuries, all three pronouns – tu, Voi, Lei – were employed together to express degrees of formality and status, as displayed in Manzoni's 19th-century The Betrothed. Voi continues to be used by some speakers, particularly of Southern dialects, as an alternative to Lei in polite address, but its use is increasingly uncommon. [47] The use of Voi was imposed by the Fascists from 1938 to 1944. Voi still appears in instruction books and advertisements where Lei would sound too distant, but most of the time it is used directly as a plural and not as a polite singular.

Although seldom encountered, the third person la Signoria Vostra or la S.V. ("Your Lord-" or "Ladyship") is sometimes seen in formal correspondence and invitations, as a stronger form of its descendant lei.

Romanian

Romanian dumneavoastră when used for the second-person singular formal takes plural verbs but singular adjectives, similar to French vous. It is used roughly in the same manner as in Continental French and shows no signs of disappearing. It is also used as a more formal voi. It originates from domnia voastră – your lordship. As happens with all subject pronouns, dumneavoastră is often omitted from sentences, its use being implied by verbs in the second person plural form.

The form dumneata (originating from domnia ta – thy lordship) is less distant than dumneavoastră and somewhat midway between tu and dumneavoastră. The verb is conjugated, as for tu, in the second person singular form. Older people towards younger people and peers favor dumneata. Its use is gradually declining.

A more colloquial form of dumneata is mata or even matale or tălică. It is more familiar than tu and is used only in some regions of Romania. It is used only with immediate family members, and is spelled and pronounced the same in all cases, similar to dumneavoastră. It is used with verbs in the second person singular, as is tu.
The plural form is a recent borrowing. Old Romanian and Arumanian, like Classical Latin, do not have the plural form.

Hellenic

Ancient and Hellenistic or Koine Greek

In Ancient Greek, (σύ) was the singular, and hymeis (ὑμεῖς) the plural, with no distinction for honorific or familiar. Paul addresses King Agrippa II as (Acts 26:2).

Later, hymeís and hēmeís (ἡμεῖς) ("we") became too close in pronunciation, and a new plural seís or eseís (σεις/εσείς) was invented, the initial e (ε) being a euphonic prefix that was also extended to the singular (sý/esý).

Modern Greek

In Modern Greek, εσείς (eseís, second person plural) with second person plural verb conjugation is used as the formal counterpart of εσύ (esý, second person singular) when talking to strangers and elders, although in everyday life it is common to speak to strangers of your age or younger using the singular pronoun. In addition, the informal second person singular is used even with older people you are acquainted with, depending on the level of mutual familiarity.

Since the formal εσείς (eseís) has become less common outside schools and workplaces, many people often do not know which form to use (because using a formal version might sound too snobbish even to an elder and using the informal version might sound inappropriate to some strangers) and thus prefer to replace verbs with nouns (avoiding the dilemma) until enough information on the counterpart's intentions is gathered in order to choose between formal or informal second person pronoun and verb conjugation. A good rule of thumb is that singular accompanies first names and plural accompanies surnames with title (Mr, Mrs, etc.). Exceptions are rare, for example younger schoolchildren may address their teacher in the plural, title and first name, or an officer may address a soldier in the singular and surname. The sequence singular-title-surname is a faux pas that can often indicate lack of education, of good manners, or of both.

The modern social custom when using the Greek language in Greece is to ask the other person "may we speak in the singular?" in which the other person is expected to answer "yes" and afterwards the discussion continues using the informal εσύ (esý) it is unthinkable for the other person to answer "no" or show preference for plural forms, and for this reason one should not even ask this question to a person of high status, such as a professional. Therefore, asking this question can itself be considered a form of disrespect in some social situations. Likewise, not asking this question and simply using the singular without prior explicit or implicit agreement would also be considered disrespectful in various social contingencies. In other cases, even using the formal plural (without a question) could also be considered offensive. A person being inappropriately addressed in the singular will often indicate their displeasure by insisting on responding in the plural, in a display of irony that may or may not be evident to the other party. A similar social custom exists with the words κύριε (Mr/Sir) and κυρία (Mrs/Madam), which can show both respect and a form of "mock respect" essentially communicating disapproval, often depending on the voice intonation and the social situation. Overall, the distinction between formal and informal forms of address and when to use each can be quite subtle and not easily discernible by a non-native speaker.

Cypriot Greek traditionally had no T–V distinction, with even persons of very high social status addressed in the singular, usually together with an honorific or title such as δάσκαλε ("teacher", mainly for priests) or μάστρε (literally "master", loosely "sir"). Even today, the singular form is used much more frequently in Cyprus compared to Greece, although this is changing under the influence of Standard Modern Greek. The plural form is now expected in a formal setting.

Celtic

Scottish Gaelic

In Scottish Gaelic, the informal form of the second-person singular is thu/tu (emphatic: thusa/tusa), used when addressing a person the speaker knows well, or when addressing a person younger or relatively the same age as the speaker. When addressing a superior, an elder, or a stranger, or in conducting business, the form sibh (emphatic: sibhse) is used. (Sibh is also the second person plural). This distinction carries over into prepositional pronouns: for instance, agad and agaibh (at you), riut and ruibh (with you), umad and umaibh (about you), etc., and into possessive pronouns do and ur (your).

Irish

In Irish, the use of sibh as an address to one person has died out, and is preferred. Formerly, Roman Catholic priests were addressed with the plural form sibh, especially in Ulster, due to the possibility that the priest may be carrying the Eucharist on his person—belief in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist would require the use of the plural. [48]

Welsh, Cornish and Breton

Modern Welsh, Cornish and Breton all retain a T–V distinction to varying degrees.

In spoken Welsh, the plural pronoun chi is used when speaking to strangers, elders or superiors, while ti (or chdi in some parts of the North) is used with friends, close family, animals and children. Ti is also the form used when addressing God. Nonetheless, the use of chi and ti varies between families and regions, but those guidelines are generally observed. [49]

Chwi is an alternative to chi found in very formal literary language. Alongside the usages explained above, those born before 1945 would, in their youth, use chi with a girl of about the same age. [50] Similarly to Italian, the third person singular is used by some speakers in the former Dyfed region of west Wales it appears, however, that the pronoun used - between either ef or e (masculine) and hi (feminine) - depends on the gender of the listener. [51]

A similar distinction exists between Cornish singular ty / chy and plural hwi / whi. The singular form is used when talking to friends, family, animals and children, and the plural form is used to talk to a group of people, or when being especially polite to one person.

In Breton the second person plural c'hwi is used as a polite form when addressing a single person and the singular te is reserved for informal situations. However, in a large area of central Brittany the singular form has been entirely replaced by c'hwi, as in English.

Balto-Slavic

Russian

Modern Russian distinguishes between the familiar ty (ты) and the respectful vy (вы), the latter also being the plural of both forms. (Respectful Vy may be capitalised in written correspondence, while plural vy is not.) The distinction appeared relatively recently and began to gain currency among the educated classes in the 18th century through French influence. [52]

Generally, ty is used among friends and relatives, but the usage depends not only on the closeness of the relationship but also on age and the formality of the situation (e.g., work meeting vs. a party). Children always use ty to address each other and are addressed in this way by adults but are taught to address adults with vy. Younger adults typically also address older adults outside the family as vy regardless of intimacy, and may be addressed as ty in return. When talking to each other young people often start with the formal vy but may transition to ty very quickly in an informal situation. Among older people, ty is often reserved for closer acquaintances. Unless there is a substantial difference in age, the choice of the form is symmetric: if A uses ty to address B, then B also uses ty to address A. While people may transition quickly from vy to ty, such transition presumes mutual agreement. Use of ty without consent of the other person is likely to be viewed as poor conduct or even as an insult (or, in the case of opposite-sexed people, overly flirtatious), particularly if the other party maintains using vy.

Historically, the rules used to be more Estates of the realm-specific: as late as at the end of the 19th century, it was accepted in some circles (in aristocracy and especially gentry) that vy was to be used also between friends, between husband and wife, and when addressing one's parents (but not one's children), all of which situations today would strongly call for using ty. Meanwhile, up to this day, common people, especially those living in rural areas, hardly ever use the polite vy. [52] Russian speakers online uphold the distinction and use vy for strangers. [10]

The choice between ty and vy is closely related to, yet sometimes different from, the choice of the addressing format – that is, the selection from the first name, patronymics, last name, and the title to be used when addressing the person. Normally, ty is associated with the informal addressing by first name only (or, even more informally, by the patronymic only), whereas vy is associated with the more formal addressing format of using the first name together with patronymics (roughly analogous to "title followed by last name" in English) or the last name together with a title (the last name is almost never used together with either of the other two names to address someone, although such combinations are routinely used to introduce or mention someone). However, nowadays, "vy" can also be employed while addressing by first name only.

Serbo-Croatian

In all standard forms of Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Bosnian, use of ti is limited to friends and family, and used among children. In any formal use, vi, the second person plural, is used only [53] ti can be used among peers in a workplace but is rare in official documents. It is a common misconception, even among native speakers, that vi is always capitalized when used in formal tone Vi is capitalized only in direct personal correspondence between two persons.

Bulgarian

Bulgarian distinguishes between familiar ti (ти) and respectful Vie (Вие). Ti is always singular and implies familiarity. Vie, the plural of ti, also functions as the formal singular.

When referring to more than one person, the plural vie is always used. For example, "Вие двамата напуснете, моля!" means "You two leave, please!"). Here, although ti and vie both means you, ti can not be used.

When addressing a single person, if the people talking are acquainted then singular ti is used, otherwise plural "Vie" should be used. Sometimes people start a new acquaintance straightforwardly with singular ti, but generally this is considered offensive, rude, or simply impolite. Children are taught to always use ti between themselves, but Vie for addressing more than one child or an unknown adult.

The grammatically correct spelling of the singular word Vie is always with capital "V", whether being the first word in a sentence or not. For example, the sentence "But you are wrong!", if spelled (in Bulgarian) "Но Вие грешите!" (the word "Вие" with capital "В"), it would convey that the speaker is addressing an individual person with a plural, because he/she wants to express a polite, official manner if spelt "Но вие грешите!" (the second possible Bulgarian translation of "But you are wrong!"), it would then mean that someone is talking to several persons.

Generally, ti is used among friends and relatives. When talking to each other, young people often start with the formal vie but quickly transition to ti in an informal situation. Unless there is a substantial difference in social situation (e.g. a teacher and a student), the choice of the form is symmetric: if A. uses ti to address B., then B. also uses ti to address A. While people may transition quickly from vie to ti, such transition presumes mutual agreement. There is a recent trend not to use the formal Vie at all, but this can lead to awkward situations.

Macedonian

Macedonian distinguishes between familiar ti (ти) and respectful vie (вие) — which is also the plural of both forms, used to address a pair or group. (Respectful Vie may be capitalized, while plural vie is not.) Generally, ti is used among friends and relatives, but the usage depends not only on the closeness of the relationship but also on age and the formality of the situation (e.g., work meeting vs. a party). Children always use ti to address each other and are addressed in this way by adults, but are taught to address adults with vie. Younger adults typically also address older adults outside the family as vie regardless of intimacy, and may be addressed as ti in return. When talking to each other young people often start with the formal vie, but may transit to ti very quickly in an informal situation. Among older people, ti is often reserved for closer acquaintances. Unless there is a substantial difference in age, the choice of the form is symmetric: if A uses ti to address B, then B also uses ti to address A. While people may transit quickly from vie to ti, such transition presumes mutual agreement. Use of ti without consent of the other person is likely to be viewed as poor conduct or even as an insult, particularly if the other party maintains using vie.

Polish

Polish uses as formal forms the words pan (meaning "mister" or "gentleman") and pani ("lady"), and in the plural panowie ("gentlemen") and panie ("ladies") respectively, państwo being used for mixed groups (originally a neutral noun, meaning roughly "lordship", but also, and until today, "state"). Państwo is used with the plural, like panowie and panie. Because of their character as nouns (and not pronouns) these words are used with the third person: For example, the familiar Chcesz pić ("You want to drink") becomes Pan chce pić (literally "The gentleman wants to drink").

Further, pan and pani can be combined with the first name, the last name and with titles like "President", "Professor", "Doctor", "Editor" and others (Pan Prezydent, pani profesor etc. using these titles is considered necessary). Addressing a present person with the last name is only usual in court or in other affairs, where government authority is involved, and generally considered impolite or condescending. [54] When addressing someone, all these forms always require the vocative case, which is otherwise optional (for example panie Kowalski ("Mr Kowalski!"), pani Joanno ("Mrs Joanna!"), panie profesorze ("professor!")). For pan, pani etc. alone, proszę + genitive is used instead of vocative: proszę pana, proszę pani, proszę panów, proszę pań and proszę państwa.

The V-forms are capitalized only in actual letters (or e-mails), where the T-forms ty and wy are also capitalized.

Plural wy is also used as V-form in dialects, for example Matko, co wy jecie? ("Mother, what are you eating?"). [55] It is also associated with stereotypical communists and officials.

Besides, other forms can be sometimes used like pan in third person when talking to older family members (Niech mama powie, "Say, mother"), [56] to clergy (Tak, dobrze ksiądz trafił, [57] "Yes, you, priest, are in right place") or to other people in less formal situations, for example in internet forums (Zatem – proszę kolegi – niech kolega się trochę douczy, a potem poucza innych, [58] "Also, friend, learn more and then instruct others").

Slovene

In Slovenian, although informal address using the 2nd person singular ti form (known as tikanje) is officially limited to friends and family, talk among children, and addressing animals, it is increasingly used instead of its polite or formal counterpart using the 2nd person plural vi form (known as vikanje).

There is an additional nonstandard but widespread use of a singular participle combined with a plural auxiliary verb (known as polvikanje) that also reveals the gender of the person and is used in somewhat less formal situations:

  • Vi ga niste videli. ('You did not see him': both the auxiliary verb niste and the participle videli are plural masculine.)
  • Vi ga niste videl/videla. ('You did not see him': the auxiliary verb niste is plural but the participle videl/videla is singular masculine/feminine.)

The use of the 3rd person plural oni form (known as onikanje in both direct address and indirect reference) as an ultra-polite form is now archaic or dialectal it is associated with servant-master relationships in older literature, the child-parent relationship in certain conservative rural communities, and in general with relationships with people of highest respect (parents, clergy, royalty).

Czech

In Czech, there are three levels of formality. The most formal is using the second person plural verb forms (V form) with the surname or title of the addressed person, usual between strangers or people in a professional relationship. The second common form is made by using the second person singular verb forms (T form) together with the given name of the other person, used between friends and in certain social groups (students etc.). The third form, which is rather less common, is using the V form in combination with the given name. It may be used by a teacher when addressing a student (especially at the secondary school level), by a boss addressing his secretary, or in other relationships where a certain degree of familiarity has developed, but has not superseded some level of mutually acknowledged respect or distance. This form of address is usually asymmetrical (the perceived social superior uses V form in combination with the first name, the perceived social inferior using V form and the surname or honorific), less often symmetrical. Using the singular verb forms together with the surname or title is considered very rude. Where a stranger introduces himself with title (like inženýr Novák, doktor Svoboda), it is considered more polite to address him using the V form in combination with his title (always preceded by the honorific "paní"/"pane", i.e. Mr/Madam), rather than his surname. However, it is considered poor manners to address somebody with his title in combination with the T form.

Traditionally, use of the informal form was limited for relatives, very close friends, and for children. During the second half of the 20th century, use of the informal form grew significantly among coworkers, youth and members of organisations and groups. The formal form is always used in official documents and when dealing with a stranger (especially an older one) as a sign of respect. 2nd-person pronouns (Ty, Tvůj, Vy, Váš) are often capitalized in letters, advertisement, etc. The capitalization is optional and is slowly becoming obsolete. A variant of the formal form modeled after German "Sie" (Oni/oni, Jejich/jejich, verb onikat) was frequently used during the 19th century but has since disappeared. This form is also associated with Czech Jewish community before Second World War, and still appears very often in Jewish humour as sign of local colour. Sometimes it is used as irony.

In the Internet age, where people communicate under nicknames or pseudonymes and almost solely in informal way, capitalizing (ty/Ty mirroring English you/You) is used to emphasise respect, or simply presence of respect. (Ty = friends, honored acquaintance, strangers ty = basic form, vy/Vy = most formal, used to create distance or express contempt, very rude if not sufficiently advocated, often used as insult itself).

In grammar, plural forms are used in personal and possessive pronouns (vy – you, váš – your) and in verbs, but not in participles and adjectives, they are used in singular forms (when addressing a single person). This differs from some other Slavic languages (Slovak, Russian, etc.)

One person
informal
(tykání)
One person
formal
(vykání)
More people
(both formal
and informal)
English
ty děláš vy děláte vy děláte you do
dělal jsi dělal jste dělali jste you did
jsi hodný jste hodný jste hodní you are kind
byl jsi přijat byl jste přijat byli jste přijati you were accepted

Greetings are also connected with T–V distinction. Formal dobrý den (good day) and na shledanou (good-bye) are used with formal vy, while ahoj, nazdar, čau (meaning both hello, hi, and bye) are informal and used with ty.

Lithuanian

In Lithuanian, historically, aside from familiar tu and respectful jūs or Jūs, also used to express plural, there was a special form tamsta, mostly referred to in third person singular (although referring in second person singular is also not uncommon). This form was used to communicate with a stranger who has not earned particular respect (a beggar, for example). Modern Lithuanian Dictionary describes tamsta as a polite form of second singular person tu, [59] making its meaning somewhere in the middle between informal tu and formal jūs. Through the Soviet occupation period, however, this form was mostly replaced by standard neutral form drauge (the vocative case for draugas, "comrade", the latter being the standard formal form of addressing in all languages of the Soviet Union used in all situations, from "comrade Stalin" to "comrade student"), and by now tamsta is used sparsely. A common way of addressing people whom one doesn't know well is also Ponas (m) and Ponia (f), from Polish forms of address pan and pani, respectively.

Indic

Hindi and Urdu

In the standard forms of both Hindi and Urdu there are three levels of honorifics:

  • आप آپāp [aːp] : Formal and respectable form for you. Used in all formal settings and speaking to persons who are senior in job or age. No difference between the singular and the plural plural reference can, however, be indicated by the use of "you people" (आप लोग آپ لوگ āp log) or "you all" (आप सब آپ سب āp sab).
  • तुम تُمtum [tʊm] : Informal form of you. Used in all informal settings and speaking to persons who are junior in job or age. No difference between the singular and the plural plural reference can, however, be indicated by the use of "you people" (तुम लोग تُم لوگ tum log) or "you all" (तुम सब تُم سب tum sab).
  • तू تُو [tuː] : Extremely informal form of you. Strictly singular, its plural form would be तुम تُم tum. Inappropriate use of this form – i.e. other than in addressing children, very close friends, or in poetic language (either with God or with lovers) — risks being perceived as offensive in Pakistan or India.

In a similar way Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and other Dravidian tongues have honorifics and T–V distinctions, in all the persons.

Bengali

Bengali has three levels of formality in its pronouns the most neutral forms of address among closer members of a family are তুমি tumi and তোমরা tomra (plural). These two pronouns are also typically used when speaking to children, or to younger members of the extended family. তুমি tumi is also used when addressing God. When speaking with adults outside the family, or with senior members of the extended family, the pronouns আপনি apni and আপনারা apnara (plural) are used. This is also true in advertisements and public announcements. A third set of pronouns, তুই tui and তোরা tora (plural), is reserved for use between very close friends, and by extension, between relatives who share a bond not unlike a close friendship. It is also used when addressing people presumed to be of "inferior" social status this latter use is occasionally used when speaking to housemaids, rickshaw-pullers, and other service workers, although this use is considered offensive.

The situations in which these different pronouns can be used vary considerably depending on many social factors. In some families, children may address their parents with আপনি apni and আপনারা apnara, although this is becoming increasingly rare. Some adults alternate between all three pronoun levels when speaking to children, normally choosing তুমি tumi and তোমরা tomra, but also often choosing তুই tui and তোরা tora to indicate closeness, or আপনি apni or আপনারা apnara in a joking manner. Additionally, Bengalis vary in which pronoun they use when addressing servants in the home some may use আপনি apni and আপনারা apnara to indicate respect for an adult outside the family, while others may use তুমি tumi and তোমরা tomra to indicate either inclusion into the family or to indicate somewhat less honorable status. Others may even use তুই tui and তোরা tora to indicate inferior status.

Tamil

In Tamil, the second person singular pronoun நீ [niː] and its derived forms are used to address children, (younger or very close) members of the family and to people who are younger than the speaker. The second person plural pronoun நீங்கள் [niːŋgʌɭ] is used to address elders (also within the extended family), teachers, people who are older than the speaker and anyone whom the speaker does not personally know, especially in formal situations.

Finno-Ugric

Finnish

In Finnish, today the use of the informal singular form of address (sinä) is widespread in all social circles, even among strangers and in business situations. A counter-trend has been reported in recent years, whereby some people are choosing to use the formal form more often. It mostly occurs in addressing the elderly or in situations where strict adherence to form is expected, such as in the military. As the use of the form conveys formal recognition of the addressee's status and, more correctly, of polite social distance, the formal form might also occasionally be used jeeringly or to protest the addressee's snobbery. A native speaker may also switch to formal form when speaking in anger, as an attempt to remain civil. Advertisements, instructions and other formal messages are mostly in informal singular form (sinä and its conjugations), but the use of formal forms has increased in recent years. For example, as the tax authorities tend to become more informal, in contrast the social security system is reverting to using the formal form.

The same forms, such as the pronoun te, are used for formal singular and for both formal and informal plural.

In Finnish the number is expressed in pronouns (sinä or for second person singular, or te for second person plural), verb inflections, and possessive suffixes. Almost all of these elements follow the grammar of the second person plural also in the formal singular form. For example, polite Voisitteko (te) siirtää autonne vs. informal Voisitko (sinä) siirtää autosi, "Could you move your car, (please)?". Each of the person markers are modified: -t- to -tte- (verb person), sinä to te (pronoun), -si to -nne (possessive suffix).

As a few examples of this could be mentioned the way imperatives are expressed: Menkää! "Go!" (plural), vs. Mene! "Go!" (singular), and the usage of the plural suffix -nne "your" instead of the singular -si "your".

There is number agreement in Finnish, thus you say sinä olet "you are" (singular), but te olette "you are" (plural). However, this does not extend to words describing the addressee, which are in the singular, e.g. oletteko te lääkäri? "are you doctor?" (plural,plural,singular)

A common error, nowadays often made even by native speakers unused to the formal forms, is to use the plural form of the main verb in the perfect and pluperfect constructions. The main verb should be in the singular when addressing one person in the formal plural: Oletteko kuullut? instead of *Oletteko kuulleet? "Have you heard?"

Sometimes the third person is used as a polite form of address, after the Swedish model: Mitä rouvalle saisi olla? "What would madam like to have?" This is far less common in the Eastern parts of Finland, influenced less by the Swedish language and all in all a declining habit. The passive voice may be used to circumvent the choice of the correct form of address. In another meaning, the passive voice is also the equivalent of the English patronizing we as in Kuinkas tänään voidaan? "How are we feeling today?"

Finnish language includes the verbs for calling one with informal singular or formal plural: sinutella, teititellä, respectively.

In the Bible and in the Kalevala, only the "informal" singular is used in all cases.

Estonian

Estonian is a language with T–V distinction, second person plural (teie) is used instead of second person singular (sina) as a means of expressing politeness or formal speech. Sina is the familiar form of address used with family, friends, and minors. The distinction is still much more widely used and more rigid than in closely related Finnish language.

Similar to the French language vouvoyer, the verb teietama is used, and teie is used when addressing a (new) customer or a patient, or when talking to a person in his/her function. In hierarchical organizations, like large businesses or armies, sina is used between members of a same rank/level while teie is used between members of different ranks. Sina (the verb sinatama is also used) is used with relatives, friends, when addressing children and with close colleagues. Borderline situations, such as distant relatives, young adults, customers in rental shops or new colleagues, sometimes still present difficulties.

Hungarian

Hungarian provides numerous, often subtle means of T–V distinction:

The use of the second-person conjugation with the pronoun te (plural ti) is the most informal mode. As in many other European languages, it is used within families, among children, lovers, close friends, (nowadays often) among coworkers, and in some communities, suggesting an idea of brotherhood. Adults unilaterally address children this way, and it is the form used in addressing God and other Christian figures (such as Jesus Christ or the Blessed Virgin), animals, and objects or ideas. Sociologically, the use of this form is widening. Whereas traditionally the switch to te is often a symbolic milestone between people, sometimes sealed by drinking a glass of wine together ("pertu"), today people under the age of about thirty will often mutually adopt te automatically in informal situations. A notable example is the Internet: strangers meeting online use the informal forms of address virtually exclusively, regardless of age or status differences.

Nevertheless, formal forms of address are alive and well in Hungarian:

  • The third-person verb conjugation is the primary basis of formal address. The choice of which pronoun to use, however, is fraught with difficulty (and indeed a common solution when in doubt is to simply avoid using any pronoun at all, using the addressee's name or title instead).
    • The pronoun maga (plural maguk), for instance, is considered the basic formal equivalent of "you", but may not be used indiscriminately, as it tends to imply an existing or desired personal acquaintance. (It would not, for instance, ordinarily be used in a conversation where the relative social roles are predominantly important – say, between professor and student.) Typical situations where maga might be used are, e.g., distant relatives, neighbours, fellow travellers on the train, or at the hairdresser's. If one already knows these people, they may even take offence if one were to address them more formally. On the other hand, some urbanites tend to avoid maga, finding it too rural, old-fashioned, offensive or even intimate. – Note that maga coincides with the reflexive pronoun (cf. him/herself), so e.g. the sentence Megütötte magát? can have three meanings: "Did he hit himself?", "Did he hit you?" or "Did you hit yourself?".
    • Ön (plural önök) is the formal, official and impersonal "you". It is the form used when people take part in a situation merely as representatives of social roles, where personal acquaintance is not a factor. It is thus used in institutions, business, bureaucracy, advertisements, by broadcasters, by shopkeepers to their customers, and whenever one wishes to maintain one's distance. It is less typical of rural areas or small towns, more typical of cities. It's often capitalized in letters.
    • Other pronouns are nowadays rare, restricted to rural, jocular, dialect, or old-fashioned speech. Such are, for instance, kend and kegyed.
    • There is a wide spectrum of third-person address that avoids the above pronouns entirely preferring to substitute various combinations of the addressee’s names and/or titles. Thus, for instance, a university student might ask mit gondol X. tanár úr? ("What does Professor X. think?", meant for the addressee) rather than using the insufficiently formal maga or the overly impersonal ön. If the difference in rank is not to be emphasized, it is perfectly acceptable to use the addressed person's first name instead of a second-person pronoun, e.g. Megkérném arra Pétert, hogy… ("I'd like to ask [you,] Peter to…"). (Note that these are possible because the formal second-person conjugation of verbs is the same as the third-person conjugation.)

    It is important to keep in mind that formal conjugation doesn't automatically imply politeness or vice versa these factors are independent of each other. For example, Mit parancsolsz? "What would you like to have?" (literally, "What do you command?") is in the informal conjugation, while it can be extremely polite, making it possible to express one's honour towards people one has previously established a friendly relationship with. On the other hand, Mit akar? "What do you want?" is expressed with the formal conjugation, nevertheless it may sound rude and aggressive the formal conjugation does not soften this tone in any way.

    Example: "you" in the nominative
    "Will you be leaving tomorrow?"
    Example: "you" in the accusative
    "I saw you yesterday on the television."
    Te (Te) holnap utazol el? Láttalak tegnap a tévében.
    Maga (Maga) holnap utazik el? Láttam magát tegnap a tévében.
    Ön (Ön) önt
    (A) tanár úr*
    Péter
    (a) tanár urat*
    Pétert
    Tetszik Holnap tetszik elutazni? maga is used instead>
    Láttam tegnap Mari nénit** a tévében.
    OR Láttam tegnap magát a tévében.
    * "tanár úr" is a form of addressing for professors (cf. "Sir") "tanár urat" is the accusative. Other forms of addressing are also possible, to avoid specifying the maga and ön pronouns. ** "Mari nénit" is an example name in the accusative (cf. "Aunt Mary").

    Turkic

    Turkish

    In contemporary Turkish, the T–V distinction is strong. Family members and friends speak to one another using the second-person singular sen, and adults use sen to address minors. In formal situations (business, customer-clerk, and colleague relationships, or meeting people for the first time) the plural second-person siz is used almost exclusively. In very formal situations, the double plural second-person sizler may be used to refer to a much-respected person. Rarely, the third-person plural form of the verb (but not the pronoun) may be used to emphasize utmost respect. In the imperative, there are three forms: second person singular for informal, second person plural for formal, and second person double plural for very formal situations: gel (second person singular, informal), gelin (second person plural, formal), and geliniz (double second person plural, very formal). The very formal forms are not frequently used.

    Uyghur

    Uyghur is notable for using four different forms, to distinguish both singular and plural in both formal and informal registers. The informal plural silär originated as a contraction of sizlär, which uses a regular plural ending. In Old Turkic, as still in modern Turkish, siz was the original second-person plural. However, in modern Uyghur siz has become restricted to the formal singular, requiring the plural suffix -lär for the plurals.

    Siz as the formal singular pronoun is characteristic of the Ürümchi dialect, which is the Uyghur literary standard. In Turfan they say sili and in Kashgar dialect, özlär. Sili is also used in other areas sometimes, while in literary Uyghur özlär as a singular pronoun is considered a "hyperdeferential" level of respect the deferential plural form is härqaysiliri.

    Northwest Caucasian

    Ubykh

    In the extinct Ubykh language, the T–V distinction was most notable between a man and his mother-in-law, where the plural form sʸæghʷa supplanted the singular wæghʷa very frequently, possibly under the influence of Turkish. The distinction was upheld less frequently in other relationships, but did still occur.

    Semitic

    Arabic

    Modern Standard Arabic uses the majestic plural form of the second person (أنتم 'antum') to respectfully refer to the addressee. It is restricted to highly formal contexts, generally relating to politics and government. However, several varieties of Arabic have a clearer T–V distinction. The most developed is in Egyptian Arabic, which uses حضرتك ḥaḍritak (literally, "Your Grace"), سعادتك sa`adtak and سيادتك siyadtak (literally, "Your Lordship") as the "V" terms, depending on context, while أنت inta is the "T" term. Ḥaḍritak is the most usual "V" term, with sa`adtak and siyadtak being reserved for situations where the addressee is of very high social standing (e.g. a high-ranking government official or a powerful businessman). Finally, the "V" term is used only with social superiors (including elders) unfamiliar people perceived to be of similar or lower social standing to the speaker are addressed with the T term inta.

    Hebrew

    In modern Hebrew, there is a T–V distinction used in a set of very formal occasions, for example, a lawyer addressing a judge, or when speaking to rabbis. The second person singular "אתה" (ata, masculine) or "את" (at, feminine) are the usual form of address in all other situations, i.e. when addressing ministers or members of the Knesset.

    The formal form of address when speaking to a person of higher authority is the third person singular using the person's title without the use of the pronoun. Thus, a rabbi could be asked: "?כבוד הרב ירצה לאכול" (kevod ha-rav yirtze le-ekhol, "would the honorable rabbi like to eat?") or a judge told: "כבודו דן בבקשתי" (kevodo dan be-bakashati, "his honour is considering my request").

    Other persons of authority are normally addressed by their title only, rather than by name, using the second person singular. For example, officers and commanders in the army are addressed as "המפקד" (hamfaked, "the commander") by troops.

    In non-Hebrew-speaking Jewish culture, the second-person form of address is similarly avoided in cases of higher authority (e.g., a student in a yeshiva would be far more likely to say in a classroom discussion "yesterday the rabbi told us. " than "yesterday you told us. "). However, this usage is limited to more conservative (i.e. Orthodox) circles. [60]

    Sino-Tibetan

    Chinese

    Chinese culture has taken naming and forms of address very seriously, strictly regulating which people were permitted to use which terms in conversation or in writing. The extreme example is the 1777 execution of Wang Xihou and his entire family and the confiscation of their entire estate for his penalty of writing the Qianlong Emperor's personal name as part of a criticism of the Kangxi Dictionary. Many honorifics and niceties of address fell by the wayside during the Cultural Revolution of the late 1960s amid Mao Zedong's campaign against the "Four Olds". This included an attempt to eradicate expressions of deference to teachers and to others seen as preserving "counter-revolutionary" modes of thought. The defeat of the Maoist Gang of Four in the late 1970s and continuing reforms since the 1980s has, however, permitted a return of such traditional and regional expressions.

    Historically, the T–V distinction was observed among the Chinese by avoiding any use of common pronouns in reference to a respected audience. Instead, third-person honorifics and respectful titles were employed. One aspect of such respectful address was avoiding the use of the first-person pronoun as well, instead choosing a (typically humble) epithet in its place. The extreme of this practice occurred when Shi Huangdi abrogated the then-current first-person pronoun 朕 (zhèn) the present first-person pronoun 我 () subsequently developed out of the habit of referring to "this [worthless] body", the character's original meaning. [61] An important difference between the T–V distinction in Chinese compared with modern European languages is that Chinese culture considers the relative age of the speakers an important aspect of their social distance. This is especially strong within families: while the speakers of European languages may generally prefer forms of address such as "father" or "grampa", Chinese speakers consider using the personal names of elders such a taboo that they may not even know the given names of grandparents who live in the same apartment. While strictures against writing the personal name of any ancestor of the last seven generations are no longer observed, it remains very uncommon to name children for any living relative: younger people using the name freely would disrespect the original bearer.

    In the present day, the informal second-person pronoun is 你 (Mandarin: Minnan: ) and the honorific pronoun is 您 (Mandarin: nín Minnan: lín). Much like European languages, the honorific form developed out of an earlier second-person plural: during the Jin and Yuan dynasties, the Mandarin dialects mutated 你每 (nǐměi) into 你們 (nǐmen) and then into 您 . [62] (A similar form – 怹 , tān – developed for the third-person singular but is now generally unused.) It is worth noting that the T–V distinction in Mandarin does not connote a distance or lack of intimacy between the speakers (as implied, e.g., in the French vous). On the contrary, it is often noted that the respectful form contains the radical for "heart" ( 心 , xīn) although this is actually for phonetic reasons, the implication is that the addressee is loved and cherished by the speaker.

    Most southern dialects, however, do not make this distinction in speech at all. Cantonese and Shanghainese speakers learn to write both forms in school but pronounce them identically: the Cantonese as nei 5 and the Shanghainese as nóng. Formality is still respected, but their languages – like Japanese and Vietnamese – retain the earlier Chinese tradition of employing epithets or honorifics instead of using any pronouns at all when showing formal respect.

    Japonic

    Japanese

    Under heavy Chinese influence, traditional Japanese culture eschewed the use of common pronouns in formal speech similarly, the Chinese first-person singular 朕 ( ちん , chin) was arrogated to the personal use of the emperor. The formality of Japanese culture was such that its original pronouns have largely ceased to be used at all. Some linguists therefore argue that Japanese lacks any pronouns whatsoever, but – although it is a larger and more complex group of words than most languages employ – Japanese pronouns do exist, having developed out of the most common epithets used to express different relationships and relative degrees of social status. As in Korean, polite language encompasses not only these specific pronouns but also suffixes and vocabulary as well.

    Most commonly, 君 ( きみ , kimi, orig. "prince", "lord") is used informally as the second-person singular and 貴方 ( あなた , anata, lit. "dear one") is the most common polite equivalent. The pronoun 貴様 ( きさま , kisama) is illustrative of the complexity that can be involved, though, in that its literal meaning is quite flattering – lit. "dear and honorable sir" – but its ironic use has made it a strong insult in modern Japanese. Similarly, 御前 ( おまえ , omae) – lit. "(one who is) before (me)" – was traditionally a respectful pronoun used toward aristocrats and religious figureheads, but today is considered very informal and impolite.

    Austro-Asiatic

    Vietnamese

    Under heavy Chinese influence, Vietnamese culture has eschewed the use of common pronouns in formal speech similarly, the Chinese first-person singular 朕 (Vietnamese: trẫm) was arrogated to the personal use of the emperor.

    In modern Vietnamese, only the first-person singular tôi is in common use as a respectful pronoun any other pronoun should be replaced with the subject's name or with an appropriate epithet, title, or relationship in polite formal speech. Similar to modern Chinese (but to a much greater extent), modern Vietnamese also frequently replaces informal pronouns with kinship terms in many situations. The somewhat insulting second-person singular mày is also frequently used in informal situations among young Vietnamese.

    Tai-Kadai languages

    In Thai, first, second, and third person pronouns vary in formality according to the social standing of the speaker and the referent and the relationship between them. For a non-exhaustive list of Thai second person pronouns, see http://www.into-asia.com/thai_language/grammar/you.php.

    Austronesian

    Indonesian

    In Indonesian, the T–V distinction is extremely important addressing a stranger with the pronouns kau or kamu is considered rude and impolite (unless the stranger is, for example, a teenager). When addressing one's friends of parents or grandparents, typically Bu ('ma'am') or Pak ('sir') are used. If the situation is more formal, such as with meetings or news broadcasts, Anda is always used, even if those addressed would otherwise be addressed by kau or kamu in informal situations. A more informal pronoun, written lu, lo, or sometimes as loe is considered very impolite. This is normally used by teenagers (particularly in urban centers) to their peers. Adults almost never use this pronoun.

    1. Lu siap? ('Are you ready?'): This form is used between friends in very informal situations without the presence of someone who has higher status.
    2. Kau siap? ('Are you ready?'): This form is used between friends in either informal or formal situations without the presence of someone who has higher status.
    3. Anda siap? ('Are you ready?'): This form is used between friends in formal situations, between business partners, or with someone who has higher status.
    4. Apa Anda siap? (Are you ready?): This form is used between friends in very formal situations, among strangers, or toward someone who has higher status. Note that Apa is an optional question word that means "what." This is a form of Bahasa Baku.

    Similarly, kalian dan Anda/Anda sekalian are used.

    Tagalog

    In Tagalog, the familiar second person is ikáw/ka (in the nominative case). This is replaced by kayó (which is actually the second person plural) when the situation calls for a more polite tone. The pronoun kayó is accompanied by the particle . This form is generally used to show respect to close, older relatives. This is also the form expected when talking with friends of parents or grandparents.

    However, when formality is required, the third person plural (silá) is used instead. This form is used when talking with complete strangers or people with high ranks, such as government officials.

    1. Sino ka? (Who are you?) [Used to ask for the identity of a person of equal rank, such as a student to a fellow student. However, this question sounds impolite.]
    2. Sino pô kayó? (Who are you?) [This form implies that the speaker believes the person addressed is related to them or a relative, and just wants to confirm the relationship.]
    3. Sino pô silá? (Who are you, Sir/Ma'am?) [Though 'pô' does not really translate as 'Sir' or 'Ma'am', the question gives us an idea that the person addressed is a complete stranger and the speaker has no idea who they are.]

    Younger generations who are basically ignorant of proper Tagalog grammar usually confuse these forms of address, thus may ask someone Sino ka pô ba? in an attempt to sound polite towards a total stranger. This and other ungrammatical variants are very widespread especially in Metro Manila and surrounding suburbs.

    Other languages

    Korean

    The Korean language, like Japanese, employs distinct linguistic registers to express relative status and degrees of formality. Verbs can be exceptionally difficult, with conjugations including various honorific suffixes: -p- ( ᄇ ) or -sup- ( 습 or 읍 ) is employed when expressing respect towards one's audience when expressing respect towards the verb's grammatical subject, -yo- ( 요 ) is used concerning peers and subordinates and -eusi- ( 으시 ) or -si- ( 시 ) towards social superiors. Some verbs have completely different honorific forms. Plain forms ( 예사말 , yesanmal) are used when speaking to family and a still-plainer form ( 반말 , banmal, lit. "half speech") may be used among close friends or towards social inferiors. These simple forms, however, become a provocative insult when used towards those who have reason to expect respectful address. As a rule, Koreans are taught to use polite forms ( 존댓말 , jondaenmal) until it is determined who is socially inferior or to ask for permission to converse in basic forms ( 말을 놓다 , mareul nota, lit. "release language") in order to avoid offense.

    The nouns also have a special register of honorific vocabulary. When such a word (e.g., the respectful abeonim ( 아버님 ) form of "father") is used as the subject of a sentence, it triggers the polite verb forms regardless of the speakers' relative status, an occasion known as nopimmal ( 높임말 ).

    Under heavy Chinese influence, Korean generally avoids using pronouns in respectful situations. Unlike Japanese and Vietnamese, Korean does possess a respectful form of the second person: dangshin ( 당신 ). Its use is strongly curtailed, though, and it is typically only used in conversations between romantically-committed partners or when praying to God. The "regular" second person pronoun neo ( 너 ) is likewise quite limited in its application, being appropriate only between close friends born during the same year or from an older speaker towards a younger close friend. In other situations, like the other East Asian languages, Koreans employ third-person nouns: common epithets include job titles among coworkers "student" ( 학생 , haksaeng) for teens "uncle" ( 아저씨 , ajeosshi) and "aunt" ( 아줌마 , ajumma) for older individuals, typically service workers and "guest" ( 손님 , sonnim) for customers.

    Basque

    Basque has two levels of formality in every dialect, which are hi and zu Nevertheless, in some areas of Gipuzkoa and Biscay, the respectful form berori is still used by some speakers, just as the familiar xu in some areas of the Eastern Low Navarrese dialect, when addressing children and close friends. Most speakers only use the zu form (zuka level) and that is the usual one used in methods, slogans. although the hi form (hika) is very common in villages.

    The neutral or formal one is zu, which originally used to be the plural form of the second person. The informal one is hi, whose use is limited to some specific situations: among close friends, to children (children never use it when addressing their parents, neither the spouses among them), when talking to a younger person, to animals (cattle, pets. ), in monologues, and when speaking angrily to somebody. Their common plural form is zuek, whenever the speaker is talking to a group of listeners who would all be individually addressed with the form zu, or the form hi, or both (a conversation where some listeners are addressed as zu —i.e., somebody's parents, for instance— and others as hi —the speaker's siblings—).

    Unlike zu, hi often makes a distinction whether the addressed one is a male or a female. For example: duk (thou, male, hast) and dun (thou, female, hast). The use of the hika level requires the allocutive agreement (hitano or zeharkako hika, i.e., indirect hika) in non-subordinate sentences to mark this distinction for the first and third person verbs. Those allocutive forms are found in the Indicative and Conditional moods, but never in the Subjunctive and Imperative moods, with the one exception of goazemak (let's go, said to a male) and goazeman (said to a female) in Western dialects, opposed to goazen, the neutral form. For example:

    • du (neutral, s/he has, neutral form), dik (s/he has, male thou) and din (s/he has, female thou), as in aitak ikasi du (polite: Dad has learned it), aitak ikasi dik (informal, said to a male), and aitak ikasi din (informal, said to a female).
    • dio (neutral, s/he has it for him / her), ziok (familiar, s/he has it for him / her, said to a male), and zion (familiar, s/he has it for him / her, said to a female), as in aitak erosi dio (polite: Dad has bought it for him / her), aitak erosi ziok (informal, said to a male), and aitak erosi zion (informal, said to a female).
    • nintzen (neutral, I was), ninduan (familiar, said to a male), and nindunan (familiar, said to a female), as in hona etorri nintzen (polite: I came here), hona etorri ninduan (informal, said to a male), and hona etorri nindunan (informal, said to a female).

    Nevertheless, if any of the allocutive sentences becomes subordinate, the formal one is used: aitak ikasi duelako (because Dad has learned it), aitak erosi diolako (because Dad bought it for him / her), and hona etorri nintzenean (when I came here).

    On the other hand, in past tense verbal forms, no distinction is made when is the addressee is the subject or the direct object in the sentence. For example:

    • hintzen, in etxera joan hintzen (thou wentst home),
    • huen, in filma ikusi huen (thou sawst the film),
    • hindugun, in ikusi hindugun (we saw thee).

    But if the familiar second-person appears in the verb, or if the verb is an allocutive form in a non-dependent clause, the masculine and feminine forms differ. For example:

    • genian / geninan (we had something for thee, male / female): hiri eman genian, Piarres (we gave it to thee, Peter), and hiri eman geninan, Maddi (we gave it to thee, Mary).
    • geniean / genienan (male allocutive / female allocutive, we had something for them): haiei eman geniean, Piarres (we gave it to them, Peter), and haiei eman genienan, Maddi (we gave it to them, Mary). Their corresponding neutral form is haiei eman genien.
    • banekian erantzuna (I knew the answer, said to a male), and banekinan erantzuna (I knew the answer, said to a female). Their corresponding neutral form is banekien erantzuna.

    The friendly xu form or xuketa resembles the zuka forms of the verbs, and includes another kind of allocutive, as hika: cf. egia erran dut (formal: I told the truth), egia erran diat (informal, said to a male), egia erran dinat (informal, said to a female), egia erran dautzut (in formal Eastern Low Navarrese, I told you the truth) and egia erran dixut (xuketa). It is mainly used among relatives and close friends.

    The berori form or berorika is very formal, and hardly used nowadays, mainly in some areas of Biscay and Gipuzkoa, to address priests, the elderly, judges and the nobility. Verbs are inflected in their singular third form, like in Italian ((Lei) è molto gentile, opposed to (tu) sei molto gentile, you are very nice / thou art very nice) or the Spanish (usted) es muy amable, opposed to (tú) eres muy amable):

    • neutral: zuk badakizu hori (you know it, formal), and zu, eser zaitez hemen (you, sit here),
    • familiar: hik badakik hori (thou knowest that, said to a male), hik badakin hori (to a female), and hi, eser hadi hemen (sit here, for both genres),
    • very formal: berorrek badaki hori (you know that: cf. hark badaki hori, s/he knows that, neutral), and berori, eser bedi hemen (you, sit down here: cf hura, eser bedi hemen, let him sit down here).

    Unlike the hika level, berorika has no allocutive forms.

    The extinct dialect of Erronkari or Roncal, spoken in the easternmost area of Navarre, presented a four-levelled system:

    • neutral or zuketza, the local equivalent of zuka: etxeara xuan zra (you went home, you have gone home), etxeara xuan naz (I went home, I have gone home),
    • informal or yiketza, which corresponds to hika: etxeara xuan yaz, (thou wentst home, thou hast gone home), etxeara xuan nuk / etxeara xuan nun (I went home, I have been home, said to a male / to a female),
    • familiar or tzuketza, like the Eastern Navarrese xuka: etxeara xuan nuzu (I went home, I have been home),
    • and orika, duka or duketza, the local form of berorika: ori etxeara xin da (you went home, you have been home).

    Constructed languages

    Esperanto

    Esperanto is not a T–V-distinguishing language. Vi is the generic second person for both singular and plural, just like you in modern English. An informal second person singular pronoun, ci, does exist, but it is almost never used in practice. It is mainly intended to make the familiar/respectful distinction when translating (literature for example) from languages that do have the T–V-distinction.

    Some have imagined ci as an archaic term that was used before and then fell out of common usage however, this is not true. It has appeared only sometimes in experimental language. In standard Esperanto, vi has always been used since the beginning. For example, ci appears in neither the Fundamenta Gramatiko nor the Unua Libro. [63]

    In Ido, in theory tu is limited to friends and family, whereas vu is used anywhere else. However, many users actually adapt the practice in their own mother tongue and use tu and vu accordingly. In the plural, though, the only form in use is vi, which does not distinguish between formal and informal address.

    In all cases, an -n is added to the original pronoun to indicate a direct object that precedes its own verb: Me amoras tu (I love you) becomes Tun me amoras if the direct object takes the first place, for example for emphatic purposes.

    Tolkien's High Elvish

    In High Elvish, self-named Quenya, the T-V-Distinction is present and very usual. Most commonly, in second-person, (or verbal desinences -t and -tye-) is used to singular and (or desinences -l and -lye- is used to plural). However, there are three variations of use: the common, that we described above the familiar and the formal.


    October 14, 2014 Day 267 of the Sixth Year - History

    Celebrating Aquinas Alumni: Elena Onwochei-Garcia – English Heritage Portrait Commission

    Ex Aquinas student Elena Onwochei-Garcia is one of six artists commissioned by English Heritage to paint African figures from history. She is featured in the article in the Guardian ‘Paintings reveal hidden histories of Africans in England’ and talks about her portrait of the Roman emperor Septimius Serverus on BBC

    BTEC Actors Final Performance

    The Upper sixth BTEC Actors completed their final Performing to an audience unit the last week of term. Fifty Two Performing Arts students worked on musical theatre pieces which included acting, singing and dancing. Each group worked on a different number. We had: When I grow up and Revolting children

    Footgolf fun for Upper Sixth Sport Students

    After completing a turbulent year and submitting all coursework, upper sixth sport students attended footgolf to celebrate with some healthy competition. There were lots of good skills on show but unfortunately not enough to beat the staff and some students finding water hazards. A great event none the less though

    Ex-Aquinas student on the nation’s favourite soap

    This week we saw Ex-Aquinas student Luke Halliwell on the nation’s favourite soap, Coronation Street. Luke performed a pivotal scene with Johnny Connor in the recreational area of a prison. Luke attended Aquinas college 2011-2013 and studied BTEC Acting where he worked hard on monologues, group work and physical theatre.

    West End Star Comes to Aquinas (Virtually)

    West End and Broadway performer Dom Simpson joined Lower Sixth BTEC Actors to share his experiences from the bright lights of London and New York. The former student who starred in The Book of Mormon musical comedy, from the creators of ‘South Park’, provided insights into what life is like

    Aquinas students took part in the UKMT Senior Maths Challenge

    󈬓 students took part in the UKMT Senior Maths Challenge on Tuesday 3rd November. This is a national competition for sixth form students testing their problem solving and mathematical reasoning skills. 5 students gained a Gold Certificate, placing them in the top 10% of results nationally. A further 10 students


    Best-Suited Careers for Horses

    Jobs involving communicating with others attract Horses most. The Horse sign stands for leadership, management, and decision-making. Horses dislike taking orders.

    Horses can make it in any career that demands neither solitude nor meditation, for they are extroverts and need to be surrounded by people who approve of them and flatter them.

    Good career choices for Horses include: publicist, sales representative, journalist, language instructor, translator, bartender, performer, tour operator, librarian, or pilot.


    October 14, 2014 Day 267 of the Sixth Year - History

    CNN Has Third Best May Prime Time Delivery in 13 Years among Total Viewers The Lead with Jake Tapper is [&hellip]

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    Last night’s premiere of DREAMLAND: THE BURNING OF BLACK WALL STREET (5/31 9pm, ET), the latest feature documentary from [&hellip]

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    #1 IN U.S. UNIQUE VISITORS, MOBILE, VIDEO, YOUNG ADULTS & POLITICS IN APRIL CNN ranked again as the #1 [&hellip]

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    CNN’s Newest Original Series “The Story of Late Night” Premieres at #1 in Cable News in Demo 25-54

    United Shades of America with W. Kamau Bell Easily Tops MSNBC in Demos and Total Viewers THE STORY OF LATE [&hellip]

    Ratings

    CNN is #1 in Cable News During President Biden’s Address to the Joint Session of Congress Tops MSNBC and FNC in Demos

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    October 14, 2014 Day 267 of the Sixth Year - History

    1st Mar. to 31st Aug. - Leatherback Watching in Trinidad & Tobago.

    3rd - Labor Day Celebrations 2021: Labour Day Calypso Finals at Fyzabad Hall 7 pm.

    4th - Labor Day Celebrations 2021: A Festival of Drums at the Charlie King Junction in Fyzabad 5 pm.

    5th - World Environmental Day.

    5th - First Citzens Monthly Medal at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    5th - La ta Caille Kidz Fashion Passion BBQ. Pickup/Delivery available. Menu: Chicken ($45) Fish ($60) Lamb ($75) Veg ($45) served with veg, rice, parsley potato, fresh salad and corn. For more information call/whatsapp 287-1186.

    5th - WeBeat 2021 - Mannie Dookie 5K Fun - 6 am.

    5th to 6th - Chief Secretary's Golf Tournament at Magdalena Grand Gold Course, Hampden Road, Lowland, Tobago.

    6th - Bloody Bay Harvest Festival.

    6th - Big Boat Race #14 at Chaguaramas (boat/yacht racing).

    6th to 8th - Couva/Pt Lisas Chamber of Commerce's Sugar and Energy Festival and Central Games at Gilbert Park, California.

    9th - Health & Wellness Day (WeBeat 2021 ) at St James Amphitheatre, Western Main Road, St. James 9 am to 2 pm, Admission: Free. Tickets available: Crosby's Cleve's, Committee Members and at the venue on the days of the events.

    9th - Film Night (WeBeat 2021) at St James Amphitheatre, Western Main Road, St. James 7 pm, Admission: Free. Tickets available: Crosby's Cleve's, Committee Members and at the venue on the days of the events.

    10th - 5-A-Side Steelband Competition (WeBeat 2021) at St James Amphitheatre, Western Main Road, St. James 8 pm, Admission Cost. Tickets available: Crosby's Cleve's, Committee Members and at the venue on the days of the events.

    11th - WeKaiso (WeBeat 2021) at St James Amphitheatre, Western Main Road, St. James 8 pm, Admission Cost. Tickets available: Crosby's Cleve's, Committee Members and at the venue on the days of the events.

    11th to 13th - The Tableland Pineapple Farmers' Association (TPFA) Annual Fruit Festival at Nu Image Simplex Complex, Tableland.

    12th - J'Ouvert (WeBeat 2021) starting at St James Amphitheatre along Western Main Road, St. James 4 am to 7 am, Admission: Free. Tickets available: Crosby's Cleve's, Committee Members and at the venue on the days of the events.

    12th - Roxborough Harvest Festival.

    12th - Dinghy Race #5 at Chaguaramas at Chaguaramas (dingy boat racing).

    12th - Pan Ramajay 2021 - Preliminary.

    12th - Pan Parade (WeBeat 2021) from Matura Street along Western Main Road, St. James 7 pm to 2 am, Admission: Free. Tickets available: Crosby's Cleve's, Committee Members and at the venue on the days of the events.

    12th - Prime Ministers Charity Golf Tournament at Magdalena Grand Golf Resort, Lowland, Tobago.

    12th to 13th - Sagicor St. Andrews Invitational Golf Tournament at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    13th - Labor Day Celebrations 2021: Rienzi Cycling Classic from San Fernando to Point Fortin to Fyzabad at 5 am. and ends at 10 am.

    13th - Labor Day Celebrations 2021: Thanksgiving Service at the Fyzabad Union Hall.

    13th - The People's National Movement's Annual Sports and Family Day at Eddie Hart Savannah, Tacarigua.

    14th - World Blood Donor Day (WBDD).

    16th - International Yoga Day (IDY).

    16th - Massy Rainbow Cup National Triathlon Championship & 5km Run at Turtle Beach, Courland Bay 7 am. For more information call 632-9004 or 784-4128 or visit: http://www.rainbowcuptobago.com or email: [email protected]

    19th - Butler Day Celebrations hosted by Tobago African Union (TAU) at Dock Site on Milford Road from 6 p.m.

    19th - Oilfield Workers Trade Union (OWTU) Butler Classics 5K Junior Race starting at Jovan's Grocery, Harris Village, South Oropouche.

    19th - Oilfield Workers Trade Union (OWTU) Butler Classics 20K Walk/Run starting at OWTU, San Fernando 5am.

    19th - Dining With The Saints (DWTS) at the St Mary's College compound. Secure parking will be available at nearby locations and a free shuttle service between the car parks and the venue will be provided. Tickets are available at the Past Students' office and from all members of the organising committee.

    19th - Yoruba Village Drum Festival is held annually the day before Father's Day, Yoruba Village Square, Piccadilly Street, Port of Spain.

    20th - Lambeau Harvest Festival.

    20th - Pan Trinbago Northern Region - Father's Day Football Match & Cooler Lime at St. Mary's Grounds.

    20th - The Friends of Victory Foundation (FoVF)'s Annual "Victory Games" at Police Barracks Grounds, Long Circular Road, St James.

    20th - Fun Father's Day 5 K Walk-A-Son at the Eddie Hart Savannah, Tacarigua to Clifford Street, Curepe.

    20th - The Tobago Culinary Festival at Pigeon Point Heritage Park, Tobago. The gates open at 10 am. and admission is free. The delicious cuisine being sold in the local and international food courts will be on sale from 11 am.

    25th to 27th - Charlotteville Fisherman Festival at Charlotteville.

    25th to 27th - Island Crashers' Festival at Pigeon Point Heritage Park, Tobago.

    26th - Carli Bay Fish Fest at Carli Bay Fishing Facility, Couva.

    26th - National Championship Series 4 at Chaguaramas (boat/yacht racing).

    26th - The Ministry of Sport's National Youth Sport Festival at Eastern Regional Indoor Sporting Arena and Eddie Hart Grounds, Tacarigua from 8 am.

    26th to 27th - Tobago Dragon Boat Association Regatta at Pigeon Point Heritage Park 8am to 4pm.

    27th - General Handicap Race at Chaguaramas (boat/yacht racing).

    TBA - Annual Father's Day concert by Raymond Ramnarine and his band, Dil-E-Nadan at at Centre of Excellence in Macoya 7 pm.

    TBA - Rafi Mohammed's Father's Day Spectacular at Centre of Excellence in Macoya.

    1st Mar. to 31st Aug. - Leatherback Watching in Trinidad & Tobago.

    1st - The Secondary Entrance Assessment (SEA) exam (Ministry of Education).

    1st to 5th - Mango Festival at UWI (University of West Indies).

    2nd - St Peter's Day (Fisherman's Fete) at Matelot Village.

    3rd - Coral Cup Golf Tournament at Millennium Lakes Golf & Country Club (MLGCC), Sunrise Park, Trincity.

    3rd - First Citzens Monthly Medal at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    3rd - Old Hilarians' annual luncheon at Jubilee Hall, Keate Street, Port of Spain.

    4th - Castara Harvest Festival.

    4th - Box Car Derby (Arima Fest 2021).

    4th - End of Season Race & Cook at Chaguaramas (boat/yacht racing).

    4th - The Network of Rural Women Producers (NORWP) in collaboration with the University of the West Indies, Ministry of Food Production, Sangre Grande Regional Corporation and Inter American Institute of Corporation and Agriculture's Mango Festival and Competition at UWI Field Station, Mt Hope.

    8th to 12th - Tobago Motor Rally at Turtle Beach.

    10th - Miss Arima Pageant Royale (Arima Fest 2021).

    10th - Pan Ramajay 2021 - Finals.

    10th to 11th - Ash Ali Cup Golf Tournament at venue TBD (to be decided).

    16th to 1st Aug - Tobago Heritage Festival.

    17th to 18th - MLGCC Open Golf Tournament at Millennium Lakes Golf & Country Club (MLGCC), Sunrise Park, Trincity.

    18th - Food Fair (Arima Fest 2021).

    18th - Roxborough Seafood Festival at Fish Market in Roxborough.

    21st to 25th - Great Fete Weekend in Tobago.

    23rd - Parangrama (Arima Fest 2020).

    23rd to 30th - Chief Secretary Bago T10 Blast at Cyd Gray Complex in Roxborough.

    24th - Fun Tournament in aid for Poolside Furniture at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    25th - Laventille Rhythm Section's Annual Sports & Family Day at Erica Street Recreational Grounds, Success Village, Laventille.

    TBA - Tobago Heritage Festival Launch at the Market Square Carpark, Scarborough at 5:30 pm.

    16th Jul. to 1st Aug - Tobago Heritage Festival.

    1st - Emancipation Day.

    1st - Arima Fest Breakfast at Arima Town Hall 7.30 am.

    1st - First People's Bird Fest at the Arima Velodrome 7 am.

    1st - First People's Canon Blast at Calvary Hill and Smoke Ceremony at the Santa Rosa First People's Centre, Paul Mitchell Street, Arima.

    1st - Speyside Harvest Festival.

    1st - St George East Community Festival at Talparo Recreation Grounds 10 am to 6 pm. Sporting competitions, cultural showcase, cuisine corner, community artifacts and craft display.

    1st - The Felicity Charlieville Fishing Association (FCFA)'s Annual Fishing Tournament at Gulf of Paria via Cunupia River, Cacandee Road, Felicity. For more information and registration details, call 389-7413.

    1st to 7th - 2021 Commonwealth Youth Games (CYG).

    2nd - Avocado and Breadfruit Festival at the Green Market, Saddle Road, Santa Cruz 7.00 a.m. to 1.00 p.m.

    3rd - Arima Festival (Arima Fest).

    4th to 5th - Rudder Alexander Golf Tournament at Chaguramas (Chag) Golf Course, Bellerand Road, Chaguaramas.

    6th to 8th - Delaford Fishermen Festival.

    7th - First Citzens Monthly Medal at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    7th - Laventille Steelband Festival at Eastern Main Road, Laventille 5pm.

    8th - Parlatuvier Fisherfolk Festival at Parlatuvier Bay Tobago followed by a street party. Admission is free! For further information please call Mrs Nicole Chance-Stewart at 682-8723 or email: [email protected]

    10th - Queen's Royal College's (QRC) 2021 edition of the school's Reunion & Family Day at the College grounds, St Clair, from noon. Admission is free and light refreshments will be on sale, and all are encouraged to walk with their coolers and baskets. No glass bottles allowed. For more information on the Reunion and Family Day, please call 472-4204, 620-0428, 681-7879, 790-0129, 320-6904, 680-3260, 764-4020, 372-0712, 489-4867, 759-5419, 702 -0393, 364-9997, 387-2411, 620-4772.

    11th to 15th - Santa Rosa Festival.

    12th - International Youth Day.

    13th - Tobago Curry Duck and Cocktails Festival at Parlatuvier Bay, Tobago followed by a street party. Admission is free! For further information please call Mrs Nicole Chance-Stewart at 682-8723 or email [email protected]

    14th - Trinidad & Tobago Golf Association (TTGA) 2 Ball Better Ball Golf Tournament at Brechin Castle (BC) Golf Course, Couva or Chaguramas (Chag) Golf Course, Bellerand Road, Chaguaramas.

    14th - WeRunArima 5k at Arima Velodrome, Arima. For more information call 473-6134 or email: [email protected]om.

    21st - 2021 Great Race from Williams Bay, Chaguaramas to Store Bay, Tobago. Staggered start with the 50 mph boats at 7.10 am 60 mph boats at 7.20 am and The 130 mph A Class boats at 8 am.

    22nd - 103FM Curry Duck Competition at Chagville Beach, Chaguaramas.

    23rd - Feast Day of Santa Rosa Festival.

    25th - Carib Santa Rosa Festival (Arima Fest 2021).

    28th - Cafe Delight Golf Tournament at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    28th - Pan on De Avenue on Aripita Avenue, Woodbrook.

    28th - Rainbow Annual Dance Festival at NCIC Nagar, Narsaloo Ramaya Marg, Endeavour, Chaguanas from 7 pm to 10 pm. For further info: 389-8425 or the NCIC's office at 671- 6242 or 665-6733.

    28th to 29th - National Champrionship Series 3 at Chaguaramas (boat/yacht racing).

    29th - Indepan Fest along Tragarete Road, from Colville Street to Maraval Road 6pm.

    29th - Shri Krishna Janam Ashtmi.

    30th - Carib Woodbrook Playboyz annual pre-Independence Day steelband parade along Tragarete Road, Newtown.

    31st - Independence Day.

    31st - Bankers Insurance Half-Marathon from opposite Atlantic Plaza, Point Lisas to the finish line at Bankers Insurance Head Office on Mulchan Seuchan Road, Chaguanas.

    31st - Carib Woodbrook Playboyz Independence Brunch at the Playboyz panyard.

    31st - Newtown Playboys Annual Independence Brunch and Street Party at #64 Tragarette Road (between Picton and Woodford Streets), Port of Spain. Admission: Free Brunch: 6am Street Festival: 12noon Food and Drinks on Sale.

    31st - Shell Invaders' Independence Brunch opposite the Queen's Park Oval on Tragarete Road in Woodbrook 7am.

    31st - Starlift annual Independence Day Brunch at Starlift panyard, Mucurapo Road Extension, Mucurapo, Woodbrook.

    9th - Ganesh Chaturthi (Hindus Ganesh Utsav).

    10th to 12th - Angostura Rum Festival hosted by Angostura Ltd at Laventille compound. (corner Eastern Main Road and Trinity Avenue).

    12th - Livingwaters Community Charity Golf Tournament at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    15th to 18th - Mexican Annual Food Festival held with the collaboration of the Embassy of Mexico at Hilton Trinidad's Pool Terrace Garden Restaurant from 6:30 pm to 10:30 pm.

    15th to 25th - Rio Claro Heritage Festival.

    17th - International Coastal Clean Up Day.

    18th - SAGC Corportate Golf Tournament at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    19th - Maracas Open Water Swim Classic at Maracas Bay.

    19th - Starbucks 5K Coffee 4 pm. The race starts and finishes at Starbucks, Ellerslie Plaza, Maraval.

    20th to 6th Oct. - Hindus Memorial Services (observance of Pitra Paksh).

    24th - Republic Day Interfaith Service at the Queens Park Savannah, Port of Spain.

    24th - Republic Day Regatta at Roxborough, Tobago.

    24th - Michael Phillips Republic Day Cycling Classic at Nelson Mandela Park in St Clair.

    24th - UWI Golf Tournament at Millennium Lakes Golf & Country Club (MLGCC), Sunrise Park, Trincity.

    24th to 3 Oct - Trinidad & Tobago Restaurant Week.

    25th - Trinidad & Tobago Golf Association (TTGA) 2 Ball Better Ball Golf Tournament at Millennium Lakes Golf & Country Club (MLGCC), Sunrise Park, Trincity.

    26th - Trinidad and Tobago Police Service (TTPS) annual 'Police Men Can Cook' at at the Pavilion of the Queen's Park Savannah, Port of Spain.

    28th to 3rd Oct. - Tobago International Cycling Classic.

    29th to 3rd Oct. - Tobago Fest.

    30th - Caribbean Youth Day.

    24th Sep to 3 Oct - Trinidad & Tobago Restaurant Week.

    28th Sep. to 3rd Oct. - Tobago International Cycling Classic.

    29th Sep. to 3rd Oct. - Tobago Fest.

    2nd - The International day of the Elderly.

    2nd - RBC Run for Kids at Queens Park Savannah, Port of Spain 4 pm to 6 pm.

    2nd - Rotary St Augustine Golf Tournament at Millennium Lakes Golf & Country Club (MLGCC), Sunrise Park, Trincity.

    3rd - Fatima Class of '75 Golf Tournament at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    3rd to 9th - Fire Prevention Week.

    7th - Chaguanas Borough Days.

    8th - First Peoples' Ritual at the Red House in homage to the Ancestors.

    8th to 17th - Santa Rosa First Peoples Heritage Week.

    9th - First Citzens Monthly Medal at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    9th - Maritime 5k - Costume Run for Fun at Nelson Mandela Park, St. Clair 4 pm. For more information call 674-0130 ext. 4026.

    9th - Scotiabank Women against Breast Cancer 5K Classic at Queens Park Savannah Port of Spain and Skinners Park, San Fernando 4 pm to 6 pm. For more information visit tt.scotiabank.com/virtualswabc5k for details and to register.

    9th to 10th Tobago Open Golf Tournament at Tobago Plantations Golf Club, Lowlands, Tobago.

    10th - Dragon Boat Festival at the western end of Chagville, Chaguaramas (next to the Military Museum) from 8 am. to 4 pm.

    10th - First Peoples' Water Ritual at the First Peoples Heritage Site, Arima.

    10th - Store Bay Open Water Swimming Classic at Store Bay Beach.

    12th - Chinese Arrival Day.

    13th - Beacon's Cycling on the Avenue in Woodbrook 7.30 pm to 10.30 pm.

    13th - First Peoples' Smoke Ceremony at the Hyarima Monument (Day of Recognition).

    14th - Santa Rosa First Peoples Day.

    16th - Stephen Ames Cup Golf Tournament at Petrotrin Pointe-a-Pierre Golf Course (P.A.P), Pointe-a-Pierre.

    17th - Immortelle Children Centre Golf Tournament at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    17th - Tobago Blue Food Festival at L'Anse Fourmi Bloody Bay Recreation Grounds.

    24th - Patience Hill Harvest Festival.

    24th - UWI SPEC Interntional Half-Marathon (The University of the West Indies Sports and Physical Education Centre). For further information, persons are asked to contact The UWI St. Augustine Academy of Sport at 868-662-2002 ext 83808.

    25th - Roxborough Powerboat Regatta 2020 at Roxborough, Tobago.

    26th - Breast Cancer Awareness Day.

    30th - Cookout Inter Club Golf Tournament at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    5th to 7th - Bago Sport Beach Football International.

    6th - First Citzens Monthly Medal at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    7th - Mason Hall's Annual Sports and Family Day.

    9th - Maritime 5k Costume Run for Fun at Nelson Mandela Park, St. Clair 4.00 pm. For more information call: 674-0130 ext. 4026 or email: [email protected]timefinancial.com. 11th - Rememberance Day.

    13th - Cafe Delight Golf Tournament at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    14th - Black Rock Harvest Festival.

    18th - Kaartik (Kartik Nahan/Kartik Snan/Kartik Purnima).

    20th - Parang in a Pot - St Joseph's Convent, Port-of-Spain.

    21st - Les Couteaux Harvest Festival.

    21st - Moriah Harvest Festival.

    21st - Scarborough Harvest Festival.

    21st - Music on the Meadows IV at the Green Meadows, Santa Cruz 5 pm, gates open at 3 pm for the craft market. Admission is $250 and $400 for VIP. Children 12 and under are free. For more info: Facebook event page or WhatsApp 394-4336 or 290-4968.

    21st - The Shelter Charity Golf Tournament at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    26th - 4th Annual LATCAFEST (Latin Caribbean Folk Music Festival) at Queen's Park Savannah, Port of Spain Doors open at 6 pm. Prizes for Best Latin Dress & Dance. Food & Drinks on Sale. Tickets: Early Bird $150 General Admission $200 Special Reserve $300 or at the door $250. Tickets available at all NLCB Outlets. For tickets call 681-2393, 324-1556, 719-5094, or 753-8287.

    27th - Fun Tournament in aid TBA at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    27th - Guardian Group Shine (5KM Run/Walk or 10KM Run) at Nelson Mandela Park, Port of Spain 4 pm to 7 pm. For more information email: [email protected]

    28th - Mt. Gomery Harvest Fest.

    28th - Pan Trinbago's Pan Christmas Party.

    2nd- The Annual Tobago House of Assembly Tree Lighting Ceremony at the Louis D'or Nurseries.

    3rd - Tobago Day Expo and Sports and Family Day at the Buccoo Integrated Facility, Auchenskeoch Buccoo Bay Road, Buccoo.

    3rd - Tobago House of Assembly Day.

    4th - Tobago House of Assembly Day (Tobago Day).

    4th - First Citzens Monthly Medal at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    4th to 10th - Tobago House Assembly Week Celebrations at Shaw Park Complex Dwight Yorke Stadium and other venues.

    5th - Junior Hamper (Golf) at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    5th - Plymouth Harvest Festival.

    9th - White Auction (Golf) at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    10th - Radio Tambrin's Annual Christmas Parade and Children Treat from the Old Market car park 3pm.

    11th - Men's Hamper (Golf) at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    12th - Ladies' Hamper (Golf) at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    14th - Caddie Hamper (Golf) at St. Andrews Golf Club (SAGC), Maraval.

    18th - Scrunter's "Pork Dance" (Annual Christmas Parang Fete) at De Forest, Vega de Oropouche, Sangre Grande.

    19th - Barcode's Annual 'Pig Out' Christmas Lime.

    26th - PINK An All-Inclusive Poolside in Tobago.

    26th - Tobago Annual Flying Colours Kite Festival at the Plymouth Recreation Ground, Plymouth.

    31st - Old Year's Festivities.

    2ndh - Pembroke Harvest Festival.

    8th - The Tunapuna/Piarco Regional Corporation's Interfaith Service and Military Parade at St. Joseph RC Church from 7.30 am. to 2 pm.

    8th - The Tunapuna/Piarco Regional Corporation's Family Fun and Sports Day at Constantine Park, Macoya from 1 pm. to 6 pm.

    9th - Parlatuvier Harvest Festival.

    9th - Spring Garden Harvest Festival.

    15th - The Tunapuna/Piarco Regional Corporation Food Festival and Street Party from St John's Road to Morton Street 5 pm. to midnight.

    23rd - Besetha Harvest Festival.

    23rd - St. Patrick's Harvest Festival.

    23rd - SWAHA International Hindu Organisation Annual Sports Day at the Ato Boldon Stadium 9 am.

    6th - Hope Harvest Festival.

    13th - Adelphi Harvest Festival.

    18th to 20th - Blackmans' annual Friendship Festival entitled 'Love Revolution' at Canaan, Tobago. For further info, call 868-363-4422 or email: [email protected]

    18th to 20th - Tobago Carnival Regatta 2022 at Pigeon Point Heritage Park, Tobago.

    19th - Pigeon Feast Fest '2022 at St. Anns. Hosted by the Upper Cemetery Street Residents Association (UCSRA) of Covigne Road, Diego Martin. For more info: 307-2493 or 757-0739.

    20th - Buccoo Harvest Festival.

    26th - National Panorama Finals (Large Conventional Bands ) at Pan City, Queen's Park Savannah, Port of Spain 7pm.

    27th - Bon Accord Harvest Festival.

    27th - Franklyn Harvest Festival.

    27th - Dimanche Gras 2022 at Carnival City, Queen&rsquos Park Savannah, Port of Spain 7 pm.

    TBA - Everybody Loves Raymond Annual Valentine's Day Concert at the Centre of Excellence, Macoya, from 7 pm. Featuring: G3: Varun, Vinesh, Amish and Arvind (sons of Raymond and Richard Ramarine), plus Raymond Ramnarine with his band Dil-E-Nadan.

    TBA - RGP's Alternative Comedy Festival 2022 at venue TBA. TBA - RGP's T&T Carnival Comedy Fest 2022 at Venue TBA.

    TBA - Savannah Party - National Panorama Semi-Finals (Medium and Large Conventional Bands) at Carnival, Queen's Park Savannah, Port of Spain 1pm.

    TBA - Talk Tent 2022 at Queen's Hall, St Ann's.

    TBA - Trinidad All Stars's Soca by de River at AllStars, Panyard, Duke Street, Port of Spain 9 pm. Music by Trinidad All Stars.

    TBA - World Comedy Festival 2022 (Spektakula Promotions with YMG Productions) at Venue TBA.

    1st to 31st Aug. - Leatherback Watching in Trinidad & Tobago.

    5th - Carnival Lagniappe 2022 at Queen's Park Savannah, Port of Spain 7pm.

    6th - Mt. St. George Harvest Festival.

    8th - International Women's Day.

    20th - International Earth Day.

    20th - St Francois Valley Girls' College annual 5K Run/Walk, St Clair Road, Queen's Park Savannah.

    23rd - Wheels on the Avenue (cycling) at Ariapita Avenue, Port of Spain.

    25th to 27th - Horticultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago (HSTT) Flower Show at Trinidad Country Club.

    30th - Spiritual Baptist Liberation Shouter Day.

    30th - Pigeon Peas Festival in Diego Martin.

    TBA - Kendra Phagwa Festival at the Kendra Grounds, Gilibia Trace, Raghunanan Road, Enterprise, Chaguanas 9 am.

    TBA - Phagwa-Holi Festival at Orange Valley Hindu School, Waterloo and Aranjuez Savannah.

    TBA - Percussion on the Greens at DCFA (Department of Creative and Festival Arts - Musical Arts Unit), Gordon Street, St. Augstine 3:30 pm. Admission: TT $60.00 Adults TT $20.00 Children.

    TBA - RGP's Alternative Comedy Festival 2022 at venue TBA. TBA - RGP's T&T Carnival Comedy Fest 2022 at Venue TBA.

    TBA - Talk Tent 2022 at Queen's Hall, St Ann's.

    TBA - World Comedy Festival 2022 (Spektakula Promotions with YMG Productions) at Venue TBA.

    1st - Hindi (Hindu) New Year.

    15th to 16th - Easter International Grand Prix at Arima Velodrome.

    17th - Charlotteville Harvest Festival.

    17th - Radio 90.5FM Easter Kite Flying at Queen's Park Savannah.

    18th - Buccoo Goat, Donkey & Crab Races at Mt. Pleasant.

    19th - Buccoo Goat, Donkey & Crab Races at Buccoo.

    23rd - ASJA Boys' College, San Fernando & Parent Teacher Association's Annual Choka Fest at the school compound 4 pm. For additional information or to assist, contact ASJA Boys' College (657- 8373) and, or PTA Secretary (390-7368).

    24th - Goodwood Harvest Festival.

    24th to 30th - Administrative Professional's Week (Secretary's Week).

    24th to 30th - National Volunteer Week.

    26th - National Security Officers Day of Appreciation.

    27th - Administrative Professional's Day (Secretary's Day).

    28th - The San Fernando City Corporation's Annual San City Green Expo at Skinner Park in San Fernando 10 am.

    TBA - Jazz on the Beach at Mt Irvine Bay, Tobago 11 am.

    TBA - Jazz Artists on The Greens at The Greens at Farm Road, Saint Joseph. Gates open at 3.30 pm with show time starting at 5 pm. For more info: visit JAOTG page on Facebook or jaotg.com.

    TBA - The Tobago Jazz Experience with performances at Speyside, Signal Hill, Scarborough, Castara and the Pigeon Point Heritage Park.

    TBA - World Music, International Night at Pigeon Point Heritage Park, Tobago.

    1st - Belle Garden Harvest Festival.

    1st - BWIA Customer Service Department (better known as Traffic) annual Mothers' Day Brunch at Green Meadows' compound located on Santa Barbara Boulevard, Santa Cruz, starting at 11 am. For more info contact Donna (683 9739) Ruby (720- 2640) Joan (663-2664) or Angel (789- 2329).

    1st - Choka Fest (sada roti with a range of choka, including baigan, tomatoes, aloo, coconut, salt-fish and smoked herring) at Nu Image Simplex Complex, New Grant, Princes Town.

    1st to 7th - National Tourism Week.

    3rd - The Scleroderma Care Foundation will hold its Annual Awareness Walk "Unite Against Scleroderma" at the Queen's Park Savannah, Port of Spain from 3 pm. The Scleroderma Care Foundation continues to raise awareness of the chronic, auto-immune disease and raise some of the funds required to keep the organisation going.

    5th - Confucius Institute at the University of the West Indies, St Augustine Campus' Chinese Food Festival at the University Inn and Conference Centre.

    5th - Point Fortin Borough Day.

    7th - Feast of La Divina Pastora, High Street, Siparia (Siparia Fete).

    6th to 12th - Nurses Week (Nurses Day 6th).

    7th - Blink BMobile Shiv Shakti Dance Company Ltd. Annual Mother's Day Spectacular at the Southern Academy for the Performing Arts (Sapa), located at the corner of Todd Street and Rienzi Kirton Highway, San Fernando, 7 pm. For more information, go to Shiv Shakti's Facebook page or call 779-6783 for ticket information.

    8th - Mason Hall Harvest Festival.

    8th - Mother's Day UpMarket at the Trinidad Country Club in Maraval from 9 am to 3 pm.

    8th - Eastern Credit Union Annual Road Race at La Joya Complex, St. Joseph (15K)/St. Mary's Children's Home, Tacarigua (5K) 6.00 am to 10.00 am.

    8th - The Vitas House Hospice Annual Tea Party in the Port of Spain Ballroom of the Hyatt Regency from 3 pm to 6 pm. For more information call 628-4673 and 628-9824.

    10th to 14th - Tobago International Game Fishing Tournament at Charlotteville, Tobago.

    12th - International Nurses Day.

    15th - Whim Garden Harvest Festival.

    18th - United Way of Trinidad and Tobago's (UWTT) National Day of Caring.

    21st - Rainbow Cup International Triathlon at Grafton Beach, Tobago.

    21st - Sisters Can Cook VI (The Sisters of St Dominic's Children's Home), at Holy Name Convent, 2 Queen's Park East, Port of Spain. Tickets are priced at $300 and are available at the home's main office on Belmont Circular Road. Dinner will be served from 5pm to 8pm. For more info: 624-7882, 625- 7163, 706-4582 or 393-1281 between 8 am to 8 pm for bookings.

    21st - TTTF (Trinidad and Tobago Triathlon Federation) Triathletes Can Cook Fundraiser at Rock Back on the Bay, Chaguaramas 6pm to 11pm.

    21st to 22nd - Sea to Sea Marathon in Tobago 5 am Sat. to 12 pm Sun. Run from the Caribbean sea to the Atlantic Ocean through Tobago's ancient rainforest, picturesque villages and the island's capital of Scarborough. 5K run: Scarborough 10K run: Bacolet Half Marathon: Goodwood Marathon: Main Ridge Forest Reserve. For more information visit: http://www.seatoseamarathon.com.

    22nd - Delaford Harvest Festival.

    22nd - Tobago Culinary Festival at Pigeon Point.

    22nd - Whitehall Striders annual Maracas Walk 12.2 miles from the Queen's Park Savannah to Maracas Beach 4 am. Interesting persons can call the Whitehall Strider coordinators Yvonne Gordon at 797-1070 and Roy Bisnath at 628-1763.

    25th - African Liberation Day.

    27th - North Eastern College hosts its May Fair at the school's compound, Graham Trace, Ojoe Road, Sangre Grande 10 am.

    27th to 28th - Salsa Fiesta TnT at at Queen's Hall, St. Ann's. For more information visit http://www.salsafiestatnt.com.

    27th to 29th - Sugar & Energy Festival at Gilbert Park, California.

    28th - Arima Boys' Government School's Walkathon. It begins at 7 a.m., with the start and end points at the school, King Street, Arima.

    28th - North Coast Jazz 2022 at Festival Ground, Sir Solomon Hochoy Park, Blanchisseuse gates open 2.30 pm show 3,30 pm. For more information call 628-5835.

    28th - The Annual Gourmet Evening hosted by the Lions Club of Port of Spain Central at the Club's Cultural Centre on Fitz Blackman Drive, Woodbrook, from 6.30 pm.

    29th - The Mango Melee (Mango Festival) at Eddie Harts Grounds, Tacarigua 10 am to 5 pm. Best dish with use of key ingredient. Best mango chow, mango sucker and mango races. Family event and children activities. For more information call 390-5430 or 320-0398 or email: [email protected]

    30th - Indian Arrival Day.

    30th - Annual Indian Arrival Day Junior Chess Tournament at the Brian Lara Cricket Academy, Gasparillo Bypass Road, Gasprillo 9 am. Advance registration is required and can be made at 678-0132.

    30th - Guardian Media Limited (GML - VibeCT 105FM/95.1FM/Slam 100.5 FM/Sangeet 106.1FM/Sky 99.5 FM /Aakash Vani 106.5 FM) Sports and Family Day at the Sports and Physical Education Centre of the UWI, St Augustine (UWI SPEC).

    30th - Mere Desh Celebrations at the Centre Pointe Mall Chaguanas.

    30th - Prime Ministers Charity Golf Tournament at Magdalena Grand Gold Course, Hampden Road, Lowland, Tobago.

    30th - Tobago May Pole Festival entitled Colours of D'Wind at Goodwood High School. The festival begins at 2pm and will also include an exhibition of traditional food and craft.

    TBA - Jazz Under the Stars 2022 at Green Meadows, Santa Cruz.

    TBA - Rafi Mohammed's Mother Day Tribute at venue TBA.

    2nd - Labor Day Celebrations 2022: Labour Day Calypso Finals at Fyzabad Hall 7 pm.

    3rd - Labor Day Celebrations 2022: A Festival of Drums at the Charlie King Junction in Fyzabad 5 pm.

    4th - WeBeat 2022 - Mannie Dookie 5K Fun - 6 am.

    4th to 5th - Chief Secretary's Golf Tournament at Magdalena Grand Gold Course, Hampden Road, Lowland, Tobago.

    5th - World Environmental Day.

    5th - Bloody Bay Harvest Festival.

    5th to 7th - Couva/Pt Lisas Chamber of Commerce's Sugar and Energy Festival and Central Games at Gilbert Park, California.

    8th - Health & Wellness Day (WeBeat 2022) at St James Amphitheatre, Western Main Road, St. James 9 am to 2 pm, Admission: Free. Tickets available: Crosby's Cleve's, Committee Members and at the venue on the days of the events.

    8th - Film Night (WeBeat 2022) at St James Amphitheatre, Western Main Road, St. James 7 pm, Admission: Free. Tickets available: Crosby's Cleve's, Committee Members and at the venue on the days of the events.

    9th - 5-A-Side Steelband Competition (WeBeat 2022) at St James Amphitheatre, Western Main Road, St. James 8 pm, Admission: $150. Tickets available: Crosby's Cleve's, Committee Members and at the venue on the days of the events.

    10th - WeKaiso (WeBeat 2022) at St James Amphitheatre, Western Main Road, St. James 8 pm, Admission: $150. Tickets available: Crosby's Cleve's, Committee Members and at the venue on the days of the events.

    10th to 12th - The Tableland Pineapple Farmers' Association (TPFA) Annual Fruit Festival at Nu Image Simplex Complex, Tableland.

    11th - J'Ouvert (WeBeat 2022) starting at St James Amphitheatre along Western Main Road, St. James 4 am to 7 am, Admission: Free. Tickets available: Crosby's Cleve's, Committee Members and at the venue on the days of the events.

    11th - Massy Rainbow Cup National Triathlon Championship at Turtle Beach, Courland Bay 7 am. For more information call 632-9004 or 784-4128 or visit: http://www.rainbowcuptobago.com or email: [email protected]

    11th - Pan Parade (WeBeat 2022) from Matura Street along Western Main Road, St. James 7 pm to 2 am, Admission: Free. Tickets available: Crosby's Cleve's, Committee Members and at the venue on the days of the events.

    11th - Prime Ministers Charity Golf Tournament at Magdalena Grand Golf Resort, Lowland, Tobago.

    12th - Roxborough Harvest Festival.

    12th - The Annual Ganga Dhaaraa River Festival at Blanchisseuse.

    12th - Labor Day Celebrations 2022: Rienzi Cycling Classic from San Fernando to Point Fortin to Fyzabad at 5 am. and ends at 10 am.

    12th - Labor Day Celebrations 2022: Thanksgiving Service at the Fyzabad Union Hall.

    12th - The People's National Movement's Annual Sports and Family Day at Eddie Hart Savannah, Tacarigua.

    14th - World Blood Donor Day (WBDD).

    16th - International Yoga Day (IDY).

    18h - Dining With The Saints (DWTS) at the St Mary's College compound. Secure parking will be available at nearby locations and a free shuttle service between the car parks and the venue will be provided. Tickets are available at the Past Students' office and from all members of the organizing committee.

    18th - Yoruba Village Drum Festival is held annually the day before Father's Day, Yoruba Village Square, Piccadilly Street, Port of Spain.

    19th - Lambeau Harvest Festival.

    19th - Butler Day Celebrations hosted by Tobago African Union (TAU) at Dock Site on Milford Road from 6 p.m.

    19th - Oilfield Workers Trade Union (OWTU) Butler Classics 5K Junior Race starting at Jovan's Grocery, Harris Village, South Oropouche.

    19th - Oilfield Workers Trade Union (OWTU) Butler Classics 20K Walk/Run starting at OWTU, San Fernando 5am.

    19th - Pan Trinbago Northern Region - Father's Day Football Match & Cooler Lime at St. Mary's Grounds.

    19th - The Friends of Victory Foundation (FoVF)'s Annual "Victory Games" at Police Barracks Grounds, Long Circular Road, St James.

    19th - The Tobago Culinary Festival at Pigeon Point Heritage Park, Tobago. The gates open at 10 am. and admission is free. The delicious cuisine being sold in the local and international food courts will be on sale from 11 am.

    20th - Fun Father's Day 5 K Walk-A-Son at the Eddie Hart Savannah, Tacarigua to Clifford Street, Curepe.

    24th to 26th - Charlotteville Fisherman Festival at Charlotteville.

    24th to 26th - Island Crashers' Festival at Pigeon Point Heritage Park, Tobago.

    25th to 26th - Tobago Dragon Boat Association Regatta at Pigeon Point Heritage Park 8am to 4pm.

    25th - Carli Bay Fish Fest at Carli Bay Fishing Facility, Couva.

    25th - The Ministry of Sport's National Youth Sport Festival at Eastern Regional Indoor Sporting Arena and Eddie Hart Grounds, Tacarigua from 8 am.

    30th to 4th Jul. - Mango Festival at UWI (University of West Indies). TBA - Annual Father's Day concert by Raymond Ramnarine and his band, Dil-E-Nadan at at Centre of Excellence in Macoya 7 pm.

    TBA - Rafi Mohammed's Father's Day Spectacular at Centre of Excellence in Macoya.

    30th Jun. to 4th Jul. - Mango Festival at UWI (University of West Indies).

    2nd - St Peter's Day (Fisherman's Fete) at Matelot Village.

    2nd - Old Hilarians' annual luncheon at Jubilee Hall, Keate Street, Port of Spain.

    3rd - Castara Harvest Festival.

    3rd - The Network of Rural Women Producers (NORWP) in collaboration with the University of the West Indies, Ministry of Food Production, Sangre Grande Regional Corporation and Inter American Institute of Corporation and Agriculture's Mango Festival and Competition at UWI Field Station, Mt Hope.

    7th to 11th - Tobago Motor Rally at Turtle Beach.

    9th - Miss Arima Pageant Royale (Arima Fest 2022).

    9th - Box Car Derby (Arima Fest 2022).

    17th - Food Fair (Arima Fest 2022).

    17th - Roxborough Seafood Festival at Fish Market in Roxborough.

    22nd - Parangrama (Arima Fest 2022).

    22nd to 29th - Chief Secretary Bago T10 Blast at Cyd Gray Complex in Roxborough.

    24th - Laventille Rhythm Section's Annual Sports & Family Day at Erica Street Recreational Grounds, Success Village, Laventille.

    27th to 31st - Great Fete Weekend in Tobago.

    TBA - Tobago Heritage Festival Launch at the Market Square Carpark, Scarborough at 5:30 pm.

    Mid July to early August - Tobago Heritage Festival.

    1st - Emancipation Day.

    1st - Arima Fest Breakfast at Arima Town Hall 7.30 am.

    1st - First People's Bird Fest at the Arima Velodrome 7 am.

    1st - First People's Canon Blast at Calvary Hill and Smoke Ceremony at the Santa Rosa First People's Centre, Paul Mitchell Street, Arima.

    1st - Avocado and Breadfruit Festival at the Green Market, Saddle Road, Santa Cruz 7.00 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. 3rd - Arima Festival.

    4th - Avocado and Breadfruit Festival at the Green Market, Saddle Road, Santa Cruz 7.00 a.m. to 1.00 p.m.

    5th to 7th - Delaford Fishermen Festival.

    6th - Laventille Steelband Festival at Eastern Main Road, Laventille 5pm.

    7th - Speyside Harvest Festival.

    7th - St George East Community Festival at Talparo Recreation Grounds 10 am to 6 pm. Sporting competitions, cultural showcase, cuisine corner, community artifacts and craft display.

    7th - The Felicity Charlieville Fishing Association (FCFA)'s Annual Fishing Tournament at Gulf of Paria via Cunupia River, Cacandee Road, Felicity. For more information and registration details, call 389-7413.

    9th - Queen's Royal College's (QRC) 2022 edition of the school's Reunion & Family Day at the College grounds, St Clair, from noon. Admission is free and light refreshments will be on sale, and all are encouraged to walk with their coolers and baskets. No glass bottles allowed. For more information on the Reunion and Family Day, please call 472-4204, 620-0428, 681-7879, 790-0129, 320-6904, 680-3260, 764-4020, 372-0712, 489-4867, 759-5419, 702 -0393, 364-9997, 387-2411, 620-4772.

    10th to 14th - Santa Rosa Festival.

    12th - International Youth Day.

    12th - Tobago Curry Duck and Cocktails Festival at Parlatuvier Bay, Tobago followed by a street party. Admission is free! For further information please call Mrs Nicole Chance-Stewart at 682-8723 or email [email protected]

    13th - WeRunArima 5k at Arima Velodrome, Arima. For more information call 473-6134 or email: [email protected]

    14th - Parlatuvier Fisherfolk Festival at Parlatuvier Bay Tobago followed by a street party. Admission is free! For further information please call Mrs Nicole Chance-Stewart at 682-8723 or email: [email protected]

    19th - Shri Krishna Janam Ashtmi.

    20th - 2022 Great Race from Williams Bay, Chaguaramas to Store Bay, Tobago (3rd Saturday in August). Staggered start with the 50 mph and 60 mph boats among the early starters, speeding off at 7.10 am and 7.20 am respectively. The 130 mph A Class boats will be the last category to start at 8 am.

    23rd - Feast Day of Santa Rosa Festival.

    25th - Carib Santa Rosa Festival (Arima Fest 2022).

    27th - Pan on De Avenue on Aripita Avenue, Woodbrook.

    27th - Rainbow Annual Dance Festival at NCIC Nagar, Narsaloo Ramaya Marg, Endeavour, Chaguanas from 7 pm to 10 pm. For further info: 389-8425 or the NCIC's office at 671- 6242 or 665-6733.

    28th - Indepan Fest along Tragarete Road, from Colville Street to Maraval Road 6pm.

    28th - 103FM Curry Duck Competition at Chagville Beach, Chaguaramas.

    30th - Carib Woodbrook Playboyz annual pre-Independence Day steelband parade along Tragarete Road, Newtown.

    30th - Ganesh Chaturthi (Hindus Ganesh Utsav).

    31st - Independence Day.

    31st - Bankers Insurance Half-Marathon from opposite Atlantic Plaza, Point Lisas to the finish line at Bankers Insurance Head Office on Mulchan Seuchan Road, Chaguanas.

    31st - Carib Woodbrook Playboyz Independence Brunch at the Playboyz panyard.

    31st - Newtown Playboys Annual Independence Brunch and Street Party at #64 Tragarette Road (between Picton and Woodford Streets), Port of Spain. Admission: Free Brunch: 6am Street Festival: 12noon Food and Drinks on Sale.

    31st - Shell Invaders' Independence Brunch opposite the Queen's Park Oval on Tragarete Road in Woodbrook 7am.

    31st - Starlift annual Independence Day Brunch at Starlift panyard, Mucurapo Road Extension, Mucurapo, Woodbrook.

    Mid July to early August - Tobago Heritage Festival.

    10th to 25th - Hindus Memorial Services (observance of Pitra Paksh).

    17th - International Coastal Clean Up Day.

    18th - Maracas Open Water Swim Classic at Maracas Bay.

    18th - Starbucks 5K Coffee 4 pm. The race starts and finishes at Starbucks, Ellerslie Plaza, Maraval.

    21st to 24th - Mexican Annual Food Festival held with the collaboration of the Embassy of Mexico at Hilton Trinidad's Pool Terrace Garden Restaurant from 6:30 pm to 10:30 pm.

    21st to 30th - Rio Claro Heritage Festival.

    23rd to 2nd Oct. - Trinidad & Tobago Restaurant Week.

    24th - Republic Day Interfaith Service at the Queens Park Savannah, Port of Spain.

    24th - Republic Day Regatta at Roxborough, Tobago.

    24th - Michael Phillips Republic Day Cycling Classic at Nelson Mandela Park in St Clair.

    24th - Scotiabank Women against Breast Cancer 5K Classic at Queens Park Savannah Port of Spain and Skinners Park, San Fernando 4 pm to 6 pm.

    25th - Trinidad and Tobago Police Service (TTPS) annual 'Police Men Can Cook' at at the Pavilion of the Queen's Park Savannah, Port of Spain.

    27th to 2nd Oct. - Tobago International Cycling Classic.

    28th - Tobago Open Plantations (Golf Tournament).

    29th to 2nd Oct. - Tobago Fest.

    30th - Caribbean Youth Day.

    27th Sep. to 2nd Oct. - Tobago International Cycling Classic.

    29th Sep. to 2nd Oct. - Tobago Fest.

    1st - RBC Run for Kids at Queens Park Savannah, Port of Spain 4 pm to 6 pm.

    2nd - The International day of the Elderly.

    7th - Chaguanas Borough Days.

    8th - Maritime 5k - Costume Run for Fun at Nelson Mandela Park, St. Clair 4 pm. For more information call 674-0130 ext. 4026.or email: [email protected]

    8th to 9th - Tobago Open Golf Tournament.

    9th - Dragon Boat Festival at the western end of Chagville, Chaguaramas (next to the Military Museum) from 8 am. to 4 pm.

    9th - First Peoples' Water Ritual at the First Peoples Heritage Site, Arima.

    9th - Store Bay Open Water Swimming Classic at Store Bay Beach.

    9th to 15th - Fire Prevention Week.

    12th - First Peoples' Smoke Ceremony at the Hyarima Monument (Day of Recognition).

    10th to 16th - Santa Rosa First Peoples Heritage Week.

    12th - Chinese Arrival Day.

    12th - Beacon's Cycling on the Avenue in Woodbrook 7.30 pm to 10.30 pm.

    14th - Santa Rosa First Peoples Day. 16th - World Food Day.

    16th - Tobago Blue Food Festival at L'Anse Fourmi Bloody Bay Recreation Grounds.

    23rd - Patience Hill Harvest Festival.

    23rd - UWI SPEC Interntional Half-Marathon (The University of the West Indies Sports and Physical Education Centre). For further information, persons are asked to contact The UWI St. Augustine Academy of Sport at 868-662-2002 ext 83808.

    24th - Roxborough Powerboat Regatta 2022 at Roxborough, Tobago.
    24th to 28th - Divali Nagar 2022.

    26th - Breast Cancer Awareness Day.

    4th to 6th - Bago Sport Beach Football International.

    6th - Mason Hall's Annual Sports and Family Day.

    8th - Kaartik (Kartik Nahan/Kartik Snan/Kartik Purnima).

    13th - Black Rock Harvest Festival.

    19th - Parang in a Pot - St Joseph's Convent, Port-of-Spain.

    20th - Les Couteaux Harvest Festival.

    20th - Moriah Harvest Festival.

    20th - Scarborough Harvest Festival.

    25th - Annual LATCAFEST (Latin Caribbean Folk Music Festival) at Queen's Park Savannah, Port of Spain Doors open at 6 pm. Prizes for Best Latin Dress & Dance. Food & Drinks on Sale. Tickets: Early Bird $150 General Admission $200 Special Reserve $300 or at the door $250. Tickets available at all NLCB Outlets. For tickets call 681-2393, 324-1556, 719-5094, or 753-8287.

    26th - Guardian Group Shine (5KM Run/Walk or 10KM Run) at Nelson Mandela Park, Port of Spain 4 pm to 7 pm. For more information email: [email protected]

    27th - Mt. Gomery Harvest Fest.

    1st- The Annual Tobago House of Assembly Tree Lighting Ceremony at the Louis D'or Nurseries.

    2nd - Tobago Day Expo and Sports and Family Day at the Buccoo Integrated Facility, Auchenskeoch Buccoo Bay Road, Buccoo.

    3rd to 9th - Tobago House Assembly Week Celebrations at Shaw Park Complex Dwight Yorke Stadium and other venues.

    4th - Tobago Day (Tobago House of Assembly Day).

    4th - Plymouth Harvest Festival.

    9th - Radio Tambrin's Annual Christmas Parade and Children Treat from the Old Market car park 3pm.

    17th - Scrunter's "Pork Dance" (Annual Christmas Parang Fete) at De Forest, Vega de Oropouche, Sangre Grande.

    18th - Barcode's Annual 'Pig Out' Christmas Lime.

    26th - PINK An All-Inclusive Poolside in Tobago.

    26th - Tobago Annual Flying Colours Kite Festival at the Plymouth Recreation Ground, Plymouth.


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