Articles

Sgt. Truman Kimbro AK-254 - History

Sgt. Truman Kimbro AK-254 - History



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Sgt. Truman Kimbro AK-254

Sgt. Truman Kimbro
(AK-254: dp. 15,199 (f.); 1. 455'3"; b. 62'; dr. 28'6"; s. 17 k., cpl. 53, a. 4 40mm., cl. Boulder Victory T. VC2-S-AP2)

Sgt. Truman Kimbro (AK-254) was laid down under Maritime Commission contract (MCV hull 547) as Hastings Victory on 30 September 1944 by the Permanente Metals Corp., Richmond, Calif., launched on 30 November 1944; sponsored by Mrs. John A. McKeown; and delivered to the War Shipping Administration on 22 December 1944 for operation by the Grace Line.

Hastings Victory was operated by the Grace Line during the remainder of World War II and into the spring of 1946. She was then returned to the Maritime Commission and, on 18 June 1946, was transferred to the Army. Renamed Sgt. Truman Kimbro on 31 October 1947, she was operated by the Army Transportation Service through the 1940's and, on 19 January 1950 was laid up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet at Olympia, Wash. By July, however, war had broken out in Korea, and she was ordered reactivated for transfer to the Navy. On 5 August, she was assigned to the Navy's Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS) and, manned by a civil service crew, she was placed in service in September as USNS Sgt. Truman Kimbro ( T-AK-254) .

Throughout the Korean Conflict, the ship was primarily employed in moving vital cargo across the Pacific to United Nations forces fighting on that embattled peninsula. She also made shorter runs to Alaskan ports and to central Pacific bases. After the war, her itinerary was extended to include most large Far Eastern ports. In the spring of 1958, she was shifted temporarily to Greenland, transatlantic, and Mediterranean runs. She completed her last voyage to the Mediterranean in October, transited the Suez Canal in November, and resumed cargo operations in the Pacific in December. Since then, into 1974, the Victory ship has continued to carry cargo for MSTS, now called the Military Sealift Command.


Hastings Victory was operated by the Grace Line during the remainder of World War II and into the spring of 1946. She was then returned to the Maritime Commission and, on 18 June 1946, was transferred to the U.S. Army. Renamed Sgt. Truman Kimbro on 31 October 1947, she was operated by the Army Transportation Service through the 1940s and, on 19 January 1950, was laid up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet at Olympia, Washington.

Korean War service [ edit | edit source ]

By July, however, war had broken out in Korea, and she was ordered reactivated for transfer to the Navy. On 5 August, she was assigned to the Navy's Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS)  and, manned by a civil service crew, she was placed in service in September as USNS Sgt. Truman Kimbro (T-AK-254).

Throughout the Korean War, the ship was primarily employed in moving vital cargo across the Pacific Ocean to United Nations forces fighting on that embattled peninsula. She also made shorter runs to Alaskan ports and to central Pacific bases.

Post-war service [ edit | edit source ]

After the war, her itinerary was extended to include most large Far Eastern ports. In the spring of 1958, she was shifted temporarily to Greenland, transatlantic, and Mediterranean runs. She completed her last voyage to the Mediterranean in October transited the Suez Canal in November and resumed cargo operations in the Pacific in December. Since then, into 1974, the Victory ship continued to carry cargo for MSTS, now called the Military Sealift Command.


Hastings Victory was operated by the Grace Line during the remainder of World War II and into the spring of 1946. She was then returned to the Maritime Commission and, on 18 June 1946, was transferred to the U.S. Army. Renamed Sgt. Truman Kimbro on 31 October 1947, she was operated by the Army Transportation Service through the 1940s and, on 19 January 1950, was laid up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet at Olympia, Washington.

Korean War service

By July, however, war had broken out in Korea, and she was ordered reactivated for transfer to the Navy. On 5 August, she was assigned to the Navy's Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS)  and, manned by a civil service crew, she was placed in service in September as USNS Sgt. Truman Kimbro (T-AK-254).

Throughout the Korean Conflict, the ship was primarily employed in moving vital cargo across the Pacific Ocean to United Nations forces fighting on that embattled peninsula. She also made shorter runs to Alaskan ports and to central Pacific bases.

Post-war service

After the war, her itinerary was extended to include most large Far Eastern ports. In the spring of 1958, she was shifted temporarily to Greenland, transatlantic, and Mediterranean runs.

She completed her last voyage to the Mediterranean in October transited the Suez Canal in November and resumed cargo operations in the Pacific in December. Since then, into 1974, the Victory ship continued to carry cargo for MSTS, now called the Military Sealift Command.


Month: October 2020

April 30, 1975- US Marines helped provide security for the evacuation of the last Americans in Vietnam and thousands of “at risk” Vietnamese during the Fall of Saigon. Operation Frequent Wind was a massive assembly of aircraft and ships that became the largest helicopter evacuation in history.
These photos were made by Master Gunnery Sergeant John Irwin, USMC (RET) when he served aboard the USNS Sgt. Truman Kimbro (T-AK-254).

The images are part of a collection of photos he has donated to the Alleghany Historical Museum.

The barge, in the photos, was an “ocean-going barge with a large group of people. Another ship had removed over a thousand from this barge and, when they could take no more, it was towed to us. When she came into sight, we could not believe the number of people still aboard.” After unloading, the barge was sunk by naval gunfire from a destroyer.

Imaging Specialists recently helped John publish his memoir, The Life Experience of MGySgt. John Ulus Irwin, Jr., USMC (Ret.) In the book, he recalls stories of his years of service in the United States Marine Corps. From the rescue of the Vietnamese refugees at the fall of Saigon, to becoming a Drill Instructor at Parris Island, posts on the Korean DMZ and in the Chilean Andes, then consulting with Kenyan Wildlife Service Rangers in Nairobi, John talks about the interesting people, exotic locations and unforgettable experiences he encountered during and after his career in the military.

On April 29th, the evacuation began in earnest. We sailed into the area where the evacuation ships were waiting, protected by destroyers. A Landing Ship Tank (LST) causeway was towed to us and lashed to our side as a loading platform. As the refugees were flown aboard the naval ships with landing platforms, they would be placed onboard boats for transfer to their evacuation ship.

Marine CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters ferrying refugees.

The helicopters doing the evacuations would overfly the Kimbro in route and returning with their escorting Cobra gunships. They would overfly us on the way back and as the Cobra gunships passed you could see the evidence of expended ordinance. Now it was getting real.

Yun M. Kimbro, named for the ship (the M. was for Marines) was the first of 5 babies born while the ship was en route to Guam.

Yun M. Kimbro and family.

…a sentry was confronted by a man and a very pregnant woman. She was in labor! Our corpsmen quickly moved her to our berthing area and prepared for the birth of the first of five babies. Only one of the corpsmen had ever attended a birth but never assisted, so their anxiety level went up. With the baby on the way, I and another Marine held up a piece of tarp to separate her, the husband and two other children from the crowd. Yun M. Kimbro came into the world and you would have thought that we Marines were all the father!

The softcover, 6” x 9” book is 214 pages, with a black & white interior and it includes photos from John’s personal collection as well as from military sources.
Parents are cautioned- contains material that may be inappropriate for teens and younger.


Truman Kimbro

1944). While Medal of Honor Recipient Truman Kimbro's birth date is unknown records indicate that he was born in Madisonville, Texas, to Mr. and Mrs. Tom Kimbro.

He joined the Army in Houston and after training was assigned as a scout to Company C, 2nd Engineer Combat Battalion, 2nd Infantry Division. By 1944, Kimbro was a Technician Fourth Grade.

On December 19, 1944, Kimbro's unit was assigned to mine an important crossroads near Rocherath, Belgium. Kimbro found the crossroads occupied by an enemy tank and 20 infantrymen. After making two attempts to reach his objective and forced to withdraw each time, Kimbro hid his squad and decided to mine the road alone.

He was severly wounded while crawling towards the crossroads, but continued to lay his mines. His objective complete, Kimbro attempted to crawl away, but was killed by enemy machine gun fire. The mines he laid helped prevent an enemy attack on withdrawing American columns and for his actions that night Kimbro was posthumously awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

In 1944 the USNS Sgt. Kimbro, a Victory ship, was launched. Kimbro is buried at the American Battlefields Monument Cemetery at Chapelle, Belgium.


Ships similar to or like USNS Sgt. Truman Kimbro (T-AK-254)

Built for the U.S. Maritime Commission during the final months of World War II. Acquired by the U.S. Army in 1946 as USAT Lt. George W. G. Boyce and served the Army until 1950 when she was acquired by the United States Navy during the start of the Korean War. Wikipedia

Built for the U.S. Maritime Commission during the final months of World War II. Acquired by the U.S. Army in 1946 and renamed USAT Lt. Robert Craig and served the Army until 1950 when she was acquired by the United States Navy. Wikipedia

Cargo Victory ship built in 1944, during World War II under the Emergency Shipbuilding program. VC2-S-AP3, hull number 18 . Wikipedia

Victory ship acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Pacific Ocean theatre of operations through the end of the war, earning one battle star, and then returned to the United States for disposal. Wikipedia

Acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Pacific Ocean theatre of operations through the end of the war earning one battle star, and then returned to the United States for disposal. Wikipedia

Acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Pacific Ocean theatre of operations through the end of the war, earning one battle star, and then returned to the United States for disposal. Wikipedia

Acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Pacific Ocean theatre of operations through the end of the war, earning one battle star, and then returned to the United States for disposal. Wikipedia

Built as Victory ship SS Radcliffe Victory, a , built at the end of World War II. She served during the war and its demilitarization as a commercial cargo vessel. Wikipedia

Acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Pacific Ocean theatre of operations through the end of the war, and then returned to the United States for disposal. Wikipedia

Acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Pacific Ocean theatre of operations through the end of the war, earning two battle stars, and then returned to the United States for disposal. Wikipedia

U.S. military Victory ship of the used in the Second World War. Preserved to serve as a museum ship in Richmond, California, and is part of the Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historical Park. Wikipedia

Acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Pacific Ocean theatre of operations through the end of the war and then returned to the United States for disposal. Wikipedia

Acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Pacific Ocean theatre of operations through the end of the war, and then returned to the United States of America for disposal. Wikipedia

Built at the end of World War II and served the war and its demilitarization as a commercial cargo vessel. From 1946 to 1950 she served the U.S. Army as a transport named USAT Sgt. Archer T. Gammon. Wikipedia

Acquired by the U.S. Navy during the final months of World War II. Deactivated. Wikipedia

Built as Victory ship used as a cargo ship for World War II under the Emergency Shipbuilding program. Launched by the California Shipbuilding Company on 6 June 1944 and completed on 19 July 1944 as a Greenville Victory-class cargo ship. Wikipedia

Commissioned by the U.S. Navy for service in World War II. Responsible for delivering troops, goods and equipment to locations in the war zone. Wikipedia

Commissioned by the U.S. Navy for service in World War II. Responsible for delivering troops, goods and equipment to locations in the war zone. Wikipedia

Originally built and operated as Greenville class cargo Victory ship which operated as a cargo carrier in both the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean during World War II. Renamed USNS Longview and converted to use as a missile tracking ship which operated in the Pacific Ocean Western Test Range until she was placed out of service and eventually disposed of. Wikipedia

Acquired by the US Navy during World War II. The lead ship of 20 ships in her class. Wikipedia

Victory-class cargo ship built during World War II. Type VC2-S-AP2 victory ship built by Permanente Metals Corporation, Yard 2, of Richmond, California. Wikipedia

Built as SS Kingsport Victory, a United States Maritime Commission VC2-S-AP3 (Victory) type cargo ship. Operated by the American Hawaiian Steamship Company under an agreement with the War Shipping Administration. Wikipedia

Built and operated as Victory ship class cargo ship which operated as a cargo carrier in World War II, Korean War and Vietnam War. Laid down under U.S. Maritime Commission contract by Permanente Metals Corporation, Richmond, California on 31 March 1944, under the Emergency Shipbuilding program. Wikipedia

That served the US Navy during the final months of World War II. Awarded a battle star. Wikipedia

Acquired by the U.S. Navy during the final months of World War II. Decommissioned shortly after war’s end. Wikipedia

Constructed during World War II as a Victory ship and named the SS Mandan Victory. Placed into service by the War Shipping Administration's Emergency Shipbuilding program under cognizance of the U.S. Maritime Commission. Wikipedia

Victory-class cargo ship built during World War II. Type VC2-S-AP2 victory ship built by Permanente Metals Corporation, Yard 2, of Richmond, California. Wikipedia


یواس‌ان‌اس گروهبان ترومن کیمبرو (تی‌ای‌کی-۲۵۴)

یواس‌ان‌اس گروهبان ترومن کیمبرو (تی‌ای‌کی-۲۵۴) (به انگلیسی: USNS Sgt. Truman Kimbro (T-AK-254) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۴۵۵ فوت (۱۳۹ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۴۴ ساخته شد.

یواس‌ان‌اس گروهبان ترومن کیمبرو (تی‌ای‌کی-۲۵۴)
پیشینه
مالک
آغاز کار: ۳۰ نوامبر ۱۹۴۴
مشخصات اصلی
وزن: ۴٬۴۸۰ long ton (۴٬۵۵۰ تن) (standard)
۱۵٬۵۸۰ long ton (۱۵٬۸۳۰ تن) (full load)
درازا: ۴۵۵ فوت (۱۳۹ متر)
پهنا: ۶۲ فوت (۱۹ متر)
آبخور: ۲۹ فوت ۲ اینچ (۸٫۸۹ متر)
سرعت: ۱۷ گره (۲۰ مایل بر ساعت؛ ۳۱ کیلومتر بر ساعت)

این یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. می‌توانید با گسترش آن به ویکی‌پدیا کمک کنید.


Truman Kimbro (1919 - 1944)

Kimbro was drafted just before Pearl Harbor in 1941 in Houston.

Medal of Honor citation

On 19 December 1944, as scout, he led a squad assigned to the mission of mining a vital crossroads near Rocherath, Belgium. At the first attempt to reach the objective, he discovered it was occupied by an enemy tank and at least 20 infantrymen. Driven back by withering fire, Technician 4th Grade Kimbro made 2 more attempts to lead his squad to the crossroads but all approaches were covered by intense enemy fire. Although warned by our own infantrymen of the great danger involved, he left his squad in a protected place and, laden with mines, crawled alone toward the crossroads. When nearing his objective he was severely wounded, but he continued to drag himself forward and laid his mines across the road. As he tried to crawl from the objective his body was riddled with rifle and machinegun fire. The mines laid by his act of indomitable courage delayed the advance of enemy armor and prevented the rear of our withdrawing columns from being attacked by the enemy.


Vietnam War Veterans Day

March 29 has officially been designated as Vietnam War Veterans Day as we continue to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Vietnam War. As the Naval History and Heritage Command said “Every facet of the U.S. Navy we know today supported the Vietnam War effort. Navy Sailors were on the sea, along the rivers and coastal waters, in the air, and on land. Today, our bilateral relationship with Vietnam demonstrates our support for a strong, prosperous, and independent Vietnam. Through hard work and mutual respect, we are now close partners.” To honor this day, we are sharing with you an excerpt from Sea, Air, and Land: An Illustrated History of the U.S. Navy and the War in Southeast Asia. This section is called The Final Curtain, 1973-1975. This excerpt along with more information on the Navy and the Vietnam War can be found on the Naval History and Heritage Command website.

During the period from 29 March 1973 to 30 April 1975, the Defense Attaché Office (DAO), Saigon, administered the American military assistance to the Republic of Vietnam. Limited by the Paris Agreement to 50 or fewer military personnel, the activity was staffed predominantly by civilians and contractors. The DAO was responsible for providing supplies and material to the 42,000-man Vietnamese Navy, which operated 672 amphibious ships and craft, 20 mine warfare vessels, 450 patrol craft, 56 service craft, and 242 junks. The quality of personnel in the naval service remained adequate over the two-year period. A drastic cut in U.S. financial support, however, hurt the navy’s overall readiness. The U.S. Congress appropriated only $700 million for fiscal year 1975, forcing the Vietnamese Navy to reduce its overall operations by 50 percent and its river combat and patrol activities by 70 percent. To conserve scarce ammunition and fuel, Saigon laid up over 600 river and harbor craft and 22 ships. The enemy did not target the waterways during 1973 and 1974, but such would not be the case in 1975 when the coastal areas of South Vietnam became the war’s main operational theater.

Naval Evacuation of I and II Corps
The final test of strength between the Republic of Vietnam and its Communist antagonists that many observers had long predicted occurred in the early months of 1975. Seeking to erode the government’s military position in the vulnerable II Corps area, on 10 March Communist forces attacked Ban Me Thuot, the capital of isolated Darlac Province, and routed the South Vietnamese troops there. The debacle convinced President Nguyen Van Thieu that even the strategic Pleiku and Kontum Provinces to the north could not be held and must be evacuated. Accordingly, on the fifteenth, government forces and thousands of civilian refugees began an exodus toward Tuy Hoa on the coast but that degenerated into a panicked flight when the enemy interdicted the main road. The enemy dispersed or destroyed many of the South Vietnamese II Corps units in this catastrophe.

These events set off a chain reaction as the demoralized South Vietnamese troops abandoned port after port along the South Vietnamese coast to swiftly advancing North Vietnamese forces. Learning of the disaster in II Corps and confused by contradictory deployment orders from Saigon, the defenders of I Corps also began to crack. Giving up Hue on 25 March, Vietnamese troops retreated in disorder toward Danang. The Vietnamese Navy rescued thousands of men cut off on the coast southeast of Hue, but heavy weather and the general confusion limited the sealift’s effectiveness. On the previous day (24 March) government units evacuated Tam Ky and Quang Ngai in southern I Corps and also streamed toward Danang. Simultaneously, the navy transported elements of the 2d Division from Chu Lai to Re Island 20 miles offshore. With five North Vietnamese divisions pressing the remnants of the South Vietnamese armed forces and hundreds of thousands of refugees into Danang, order in the city disintegrated. Looting, arson, and riot ruled the city as over two million people sought a way out of the ever-closing trap.

During this period of growing chaos in South Vietnam, the U.S. Navy readied for evacuation operations. On 24 March, the Military Sealift Command (MSC), formerly the Military Sea Transportation Service, dispatched the following tugs, pulling a total of six barges, from Vung Tau toward Danang:

On 25 March, the following ships were alerted for imminent evacuation operations in South Vietnam:

SS American Racer
SS Green Forest
SS Green Port
SS Green Wave
SS Pioneer Commander
SS Pioneer Contender
SS Transcolorado
USNS Greenville Victory
USNS Sgt Andrew Miller
USNS Sgt. Truman Kimbro

Noncombatants were chosen for the mission because the Paris Agreement prohibited the entry of U.S. Navy or other military forces into the country.

With the arrival at Danang of Pioneer Contender on 27 March, the massive U.S. sea evacuation of I and II Corps began. During the next several days four of the five barge-pulling tugs and Sgt. Andrew Miller, Pioneer Commander, and American Challenger put in at the port. The vessels embarked U.S. Consulate, MSC, and other American personnel and thousands of desperate Vietnamese soldiers and civilians. When the larger ships were filled to capacity with 5,000 to 8,000 passengers, they individually sailed for Cam Ranh Bay further down the coast. By 30 March order in the city of Danang and in the harbor had completely broken down. Armed South Vietnamese deserters fired on civilians and each other, the enemy fired on the American vessels and sent sappers ahead to destroy port facilities, and refugees sought to board any boat or craft afloat. The hundreds of vessels traversing the harbor endangered the safety of all. Weighing these factors, the remaining U.S. and Vietnamese Navy ships loaded all the people they could and steamed for the south. MSC ships carried over 30,000 refugees from Danang in the four-day operation. American Challenger stayed offshore to pick up stragglers until day’s end on 30 March, when the North Vietnamese overran Danang.

In quick succession, the major ports in II Corps fell to the lightly resisted Communist advance. Hampered by South Vietnamese shelling of Qui Nhon, Pioneer Commander, Greenville Victory, Korean-flag LST Boo Heung Pioneer, and three tugs were unable to load evacuees at this city, which fell on 31 March. The speed of the South Vietnamese collapse and the enemy’s quick exploitation of it limited the number of refugees rescued from Tuy Hoa and Nha Trang. Before the latter port fell on 2 April, however, Boo Heung Pioneer and Pioneer Commander brought 11,500 passengers on board and put out to sea.

Initially, Cam Ranh Bay was chosen as the safe haven for these South Vietnamese troops and civilians transported by MSC. But, even Cam Ranh Bay was soon in peril. Between 1 and 4 April, many of the refugees just landed were reembarked for further passage south and west to Phu Quoc Island in the Gulf of Siam. Greenville Victory, Sgt. Andrew Miller, American Challenger, and Green Port each embarked between 7,000 and 8,000 evacuees for the journey. Pioneer Contender sailed with 16,700 people filling every conceivable space from stem to stern. Crowding and the lack of sufficient food and water among the 8,000 passengers on board Transcolorado led a number of armed Vietnamese marines to demand they be discharged at the closer port of Vung Tau. The ship’s master complied to avoid bloodshed, but this crisis highlighted the need for the Navy to provide better security.

As the magnitude of the calamity in I and II Corps became apparent, the Seventh Fleet deployed elements of the Amphibious Task Force (Task Force 76) to a position off Nha Trang. Because of the political restrictions on the use of American military forces in South Vietnam and the availability of MSC resources, however, Washington limited the naval contingent, then designated the Refugee Assistance Task Group (Task Group 76.8), to a supporting role. For the most part, this entailed command coordination, surface escort duties, and the dispatch of 50-man Marine security details to the MSC flotilla at sea. By 2 April, the task group–Dubuque, Durham (LKA 114), Frederick (LST 1184), and the Task Force 76 flagship Blue Ridge (LCC 19)–was monitoring operations at Cam Ranh Bay and Phan Rang. That same night the first Marine security force to do so boarded Pioneer Contender. A second contingent was airlifted to Transcolorado on the fourth. Dissatisfied with the condition of reception facilities on Phu Quoc and ill-tempered after the arduous passage south, armed passengers in Greenville Victory forced the master to sail to Vung Tau. Guided missile cruiser Long Beach (CGN 9) and escort Reasoner (DE 1063) intercepted the ship and stood by to aid the crew, but the voyage and debarkation of passengers proceeded uneventfully. In addition, Commander Task Group 76.8 immediately concentrated Dubuque, guided missile destroyer Cochrane (DDG 21), storeship Vega (AF 59), and the three ships of Amphibious Ready Group Alpha at Phu Quoc to position security detachments on each of the MSC vessels and to resupply the refugees with food, water, and medicines. Naval personnel also served as translators to ease the registration process. By 10 April, all ships at Phu Quoc were empty, thus bringing to a close the intracoastal sealift of 130,000 U.S. and South Vietnamese citizens. With stabilization of the fighting front at Xuan Loc east of Saigon and the Communists preparation for the final offensive, the need to evacuate by sea diminished. By the fourteenth all naval vessels had departed the waters off South Vietnam and returned to other duties.

Eagle Pull
Meanwhile, the Seventh Fleet focused its attention on Cambodia, in imminent danger of falling to the Communist Khmer Rouge guerrillas. Since 1970, the United States had aided the government of President Lon Nol in its struggle with the indigenous enemy and with North Vietnamese forces arrayed along the border with South Vietnam. The American support included a bombing campaign launched from Navy carriers and Air Force bases as far away as Guam and the delivery to Phnom Penh of arms, ammunition, and essential commodities through airlift and Mekong River convoy. Material assistance to the 6,000-man Cambodian Navy included the transfer of coastal patrol craft, PBRs, converted amphibious craft for river patrol and mine warfare, and auxiliary vessels. Despite this aid, by early 1975 the Communists in Cambodia controlled every population center but Phnom Penh, the capital. As the enemy tightened his ring around the city, the resistance of Cambodian government forces began to crumble.

Concluding that it was only a matter of time before all was lost in Cambodia, American leaders prepared to evacuate American and allied personnel from Phnom Penh. Fleet commanders revised and updated long-standing plans and alerted their forces for this special mission, designated Operation Eagle Pull. On 3 March 1975, Amphibious Ready Group Alpha (Task Group 76.4), and the 31st Marine Amphibious Unit (Task Group 79.4) embarked and arrived at a designated station off Kompong Som (previously Sihanoukville) in the Gulf of Siam. By 11 April, the force consisted of amphibious ships Okinawa,Vancouver, and Thomaston (LSD 28), escorted by Edson (DD 946), Henry B. Wilson (DDG 7), Knox (DE 1052), and Kirk (DE 1087). In addition, Hancock disembarked her normal complement of fixed-wing aircraft and took on Marine Heavy Lift Helicopter Squadron (HMH) 463 for the operation. Anticipating the need to rescue as many as 800 evacuees, naval leaders decided that they needed all of the squadron’s 25 CH-53, CH-46, AH-1J, and UH-1E helicopters and Okinawa’s 22 CH-53, AH-1J, and UH-1Es of HMH-462. The amphibious group also carried the 2d Battalion, 4th Marines, which would defend the evacuation landing zone near the U.S. Embassy, and reinforced naval medical-surgical teams to care for any casualties. Land-based U.S. Air Force helicopters and tactical aircraft were also on hand to back up the naval effort. Commander U.S. Support Activities Group/7th Air Force (COMUSSAG) was in overall command of the evacuation operation.

On 7 April 1975, the American command put Amphibious Ready Group Alpha on three-hour alert and positioned the force off the Cambodian coast. In the early morning hours of 12 April Washington ordered execution of the daring mission. At 0745 local time, Okinawa began launching helicopters in three waves to carry the 360-man Marine ground security force to the landing zone. One hour later, after traversing 100 miles of hostile territory, the initial wave set down near the embassy and the Marines quickly established a defensive perimeter.

Within the next two hours, U.S. officials assembled the evacuees and quickly loaded them on Okinawa and Hancock helicopters. Because many already had left Cambodia by other means prior to the twelfth, the evacuees numbered only 276. The group included U.S. Ambassador John Gunther Dean, other American diplomatic personnel, the acting president of Cambodia, senior Cambodian government leaders and their families, and members of the news media. In all, 82 U.S., 159 Cambodian, and 35 other nationals were rescued.

By 1041 all the evacuees had been lifted out, and little more than one-half hour later the ground security force also was airborne and heading out to sea. At 1224 all aircraft and personnel were safely on board Amphibious Ready Group Alpha ships. Although one Khmer Rouge 75-millimeter shell landed near the embassy landing zone, no casualties were suffered during the entire operation. The following day, task group helicopters flew the evacuated personnel to Thailand and the naval force set sail for Subic Bay. Thus through detailed planning, preparation, and precise execution, the joint evacuation force successfully accomplished the military mission in Cambodia.

The Fall of South Vietnam
The experience gained in Operation Eagle Pull and in the refugee evacuations from South Vietnam’s I and II Corps served the fleet well when the Republic of Vietnam, after 20 years of struggle, collapsed under the Communist onslaught. During the latter half of April, U.S. naval leaders prepared ships and men for the final evacuation of American and allied personnel from South Vietnam. The ships of the MSC flotilla were cleaned, restocked with food, water, and medicine and deployed off Vung Tau in readiness. In addition, Marine security detachments embarked in each of the vessels and prepared to disarm boarding refugees and ensure order. Rincon (T-AOG-77) stood by to provide fuel to Vietnamese and American ships making the exodus from South Vietnam’s waters.

The Seventh Fleet also marshalled its forces in the Western Pacific. Between 18 and 24 April 1975, with the loss of Saigon imminent, the Navy concentrated off Vung Tau a vast assemblage of ships under Commander Task Force 76.

Task Force 76
Blue Ridge (command ship)

Task Group 76.4 (Movement Transport Group Alpha)
Okinawa
Vancouver
Thomaston
Peoria (LST 1183)

Task Group 76.5 (Movement Transport Group Bravo)
Dubuque
Durham
Frederick

Task Group 76.9 (Movement Transport Group Charlie)
Anchorage (LSD 36)
Denver (LPD 9)
Duluth (LPD 6)
Mobile (LKA 115)

The task force was joined by Hancock and Midway, carrying Navy, Marine, and Air Force helicopters Seventh Fleet flagship Oklahoma City amphibious ships Mount Vernon (LSD 39), Barbour County (LST 1195), and Tuscaloosa (LST 1187) and eight destroyer types for naval gunfire, escort, and area defense. The Enterprise and Coral Sea carrier attack groups of Task Force 77 in the South China Sea provided air cover while Task Force 73 ensured logistic support. The Marine evacuation contingent, the 9th Marine Amphibious Brigade (Task Group 79.1), consisted of three battalion landing teams, four helicopter squadrons, support units, and the deployed security detachments.

After a dogged defense at Xuan Loc, the South Vietnamese forces defending the approaches to Saigon finally gave way on 21 April. With the outcome of the conflict clear, President Thieu resigned the same day. On the 29th, North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces closed on the capital, easily pushing through the disintegrating Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces. Although U.S. and South Vietnamese leaders had delayed ordering an evacuation, for fear of sparking a premature collapse, the time for decision was now at hand.

At 1108 local time on 29 April 1975, Commander Task Force 76 received the order to execute Operation Frequent Wind (initially Talon Vise), the evacuation of U.S. personnel and Vietnamese who might suffer as a result of their past service to the allied effort. At 1244, from a position 17 nautical miles from the Vung Tau Peninsula, Hancock launched the first helicopter wave. Over two hours later, these aircraft landed at the primary landing zone in the U.S. Defense Attache Office compound in Saigon. Once the ground security force (2d Battalion, 4th Marines) established a defensive cordon, Task Force 76 helicopters began lifting out the thousands of American, Vietnamese, and third-country nationals. The process was fairly orderly. By 2100 that night, the entire group of 5,000 evacuees had been cleared from the site. The Marines holding the perimeter soon followed.

The situation was much less stable at the U.S. Embassy. There, several hundred prospective evacuees were joined by thousands more who climbed fences and pressed the Marine guard in their desperate attempt to flee the city. Marine and Air Force helicopters, flying at night through ground fire over Saigon and the surrounding area, had to pick up evacuees from dangerously constricted landing zones at the embassy, one atop the building itself. Despite the problems, by 0500 on the morning of 30 April, U.S. Ambassador Graham Martin and 2,100 evacuees had been rescued from the Communist forces closing in. Only two hours after the last Marine security force element was extracted from the embassy, Communist tanks crashed through the gates of the nearby Presidential Palace. At the cost of two Marines killed in an earlier shelling of the Defense Attaché Office compound and two helicopter crews lost at sea, Task Force 76 rescued over 7,000 Americans and Vietnamese.

Meanwhile, out at sea, the initial trickle of refugees from Saigon had become a torrent. Vietnamese Air Force aircraft loaded with air crews and their families made for the naval task force. These incoming helicopters (most fuel-starved) and one T-41 trainer complicated the landing and takeoff of the Marine and Air Force helicopters shuttling evacuees. Ships of the task force recovered 41 Vietnamese aircraft, but another 54 were pushed over the side to make room on deck or ditched alongside by their frantic crews. Naval small craft rescued many Vietnamese from sinking helicopters, but some did not survive the ordeal.

This aerial exodus was paralleled by an outgoing tide of junks, sampans, and small craft of all types bearing a large number of the fleeing population. MSC tugs Harumi, Chitose Maru, Osceola, Shibaura Maru, and Asiatic Stamina pulled barges filled with people from Saigon port out to the MSC flotilla. There, the refugees were embarked, registered, inspected for weapons, and given a medical exam. Having learned well from the earlier operations, the MSC crews and Marine security personnel processed the new arrivals with relative efficiency. The Navy eventually transferred all Vietnamese refugees taken on board naval vessels to the MSC ships.

Another large contingent of Vietnamese was carried to safety by a flotilla of 26 Vietnamese Navy and other vessels. These ships concentrated off Son Island southwest of Vung Tau with 30,000 sailors, their families, and other civilians on board.


    , creator of Wildfire theme , author , United States Secretary of the Navy and senator , a calculating prodigy
  • Truman Hanks, son of Tom Hanks , former United States Air Force four star general
    , a federal scholarship granted to U.S. college juniors for demonstrated leadership potential and a commitment to public service
  • the Truman Doctrine , 1993 Pulitzer Prize winner David McCullough's book about 33rd US President Harry S. Truman , film about the life of Harry S. Truman
  • The Truman Show, a 1998 film starring Jim Carrey , Kansas City, Missouri in northeast Missouri , a brewery originally founded in east London

This entry is from Wikipedia, the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. It may not have been reviewed by professional editors (see full disclaimer)

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.

Please, email us to describe your idea.

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

Copyright © 2012 sensagent Corporation: Online Encyclopedia, Thesaurus, Dictionary definitions and more. All rights reserved. Ro