What are the origins of sizing a squad in modern foot drill?

What are the origins of sizing a squad in modern foot drill?

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I recently came across this question "What decides who goes in the front rank in a line infantry formation?" and while trying to form an answer to it I realised I was making the assumption that the sizing of a formation in modern foot drill, like many modern drill commands, has its origins in the 1700s/1800s.

It is common (I am hesitant to say this always happens as it has been a while since I did any drill) for a squad to be sized as part of the process of forming a squad in marching order. AP818 (The drill manual of the RAF) states:

The reason this movement is taught is that a correctly sized squad drills betters together and gives a better impression to the spectator.

Stating that a correctly sized squad drills better together is hard to prove, but I can see how it would related to large line formations as used in the Napoleonic era as effective drill was vital.

So, my question is: What are the origins of sizing a squad in modern foot drill? or Does the practice of sizing a squad in modern foot drill originate from Napoleonic Era drill? It's worth noting I'm not necessarily looking for an date or an era but I am unable to find much information on the origins of modern foot drill.

Note: While I refer to "a squad" this method is also used to size a flight, which is a subdivision of a Squadron. Also, this command is (in my experience) common across the RAF, RN and Army.

Note: This post mostly relates to the British Army (with reference to the RAF drill manual - which is based on the Army's drill manual), but is likely to be common across several nations armed forces for this time period. So answers referring to Commonwealth Nations, the USA, France and Germany (to name a few) may be relevant.

Info on squad sizing

Sizing a squad results with the tallest members to the left and right hand sized of a squad, with the shortest in the middle.

Proper Squad Sizing is important for minimizing loss of trim when the unit wheels. By having the shorter men in the middle take a normal pace in a wheel, the taller men on the outside can more easily stretch their pace to keep the line trimmed. Those on the inside must shorten their pace, but ease of doing that is not dependent on leg length.

The Canadian Forces Drill Manual illustrates this process on page 2-28, from a single rank in which the tallest individuals have formed to the right and the shortest to the left:


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Phalanx, in military science, tactical formation consisting of a block of heavily armed infantry standing shoulder to shoulder in files several ranks deep. Fully developed by the ancient Greeks, it survived in modified form into the gunpowder era and is viewed today as the beginning of European military development.

The ancient Sumerian army fielded a standard six-man-deep phalanx the first line went into battle carrying large, rectangular shields, and the troops bore heavy pikes and battle axes. During the 7th century bc the Greek city-states adopted a phalanx eight men deep. The Greek hoplite, the heavy-armed infantryman who manned the phalanx, was equipped with a round shield, a heavy corselet of leather and metal, greaves (shin armour), an 8-foot pike for thrusting, and a 2-foot double-edged sword. Since the phalanx held in solid ranks and was divided only into the centre and wings, there was generally little need for an officer corps the whole line advanced in step to the sound of the flute. Such a formation encouraged cohesion among advancing troops and presented a frightening spectacle to the enemy, but it was difficult to maneuver and, if penetrated by enemy formations, became little more than a mob.

The basic Greek formation was made more flexible by Philip II of Macedon and his son, Alexander III the Great. Alexander’s core unit in the phalanx was the syntagma, normally 16 men deep. Each soldier was armed with the sarissa, a 13- to 21-foot spear in battle formation, the first five ranks held their spears horizontally in front of the advancing phalanx, each file being practically on the heels of the men in front. The remaining 11 ranks presumably held their spears vertically or rested them on the shoulders of those in front. On both sides of the syntagma, lending mobility as well as protection, was the light infantry, a disciplined force of archers, slingers, and javelin men. Protecting the flanks and poised to charge the enemy’s weak points was heavy cavalry, armed with sword and javelin. Squadrons of light horse were used for scouting and skirmishing.

From the founding of their city-state until the close of the 2nd century bc , the Romans found the Greek-style phalanx suitable for fighting in the plains of Latium. The basic weapon for this formation was a thrusting spear called the hasta from this the heavy infantry derived its name, hastati, retaining it even after Rome abandoned the phalanx for the more flexible legion.

For a millennium after the fall of Rome, massed infantry was swept from the field by heavy cavalry, but in the 15th century, Swiss burghers and peasants, fighting for their freedom in Alpine valleys where cavalry had little room to maneuver, brought about a return of the phalanx. This consisted of one-fifth missile weapons (chiefly the crossbow), one-fifth spears, and three-fifths halberds (eight-foot shafts with the blade of an ax, the point of a spear, and a hook for pulling a rider out of the saddle). Discarding all armour except for the helmet and cuirass, the Swiss were able to march 30 miles a day and attack with a celerity and discipline that were disconcerting to their adversaries.

In the 16th century, Spanish troops armed with pike and harquebus introduced the first phalanx of the gunpowder age—solid columns of infantry known as battles. Usually the harquebusiers were drawn up on the corners of battles 25 ranks deep. After firing at the word of command, each rank withdrew to the rear to reload under cover of the pikemen and gradually moved forward by successive volleys until its turn came again. When the enemy’s ranks were broken by firepower, the pikemen evolved from square into line and advanced, shoulder to shoulder, in a massive charge calculated to sweep the field.

Forward March

To march forward from a halt, the command of execution is, "Forward, march." On the command "March," you smartly step off straight ahead with your left foot, taking a 30-inch step (measured from heel to heel), and place the heel on the ground first. When stepping off and while marching, you will use a coordinated arm swing -- that is, right arm forward with the left leg and left arm forward with the right leg. The hands are cupped with the thumbs pointed down, and the arms hang straight, but not stiff, and swing naturally. The swing of the arms measures nine inches to the front (measured from the rear of the hand to the front of the thigh) and six inches to the rear (measured from the front of the hand to the back of the thigh).

To halt from marching, the command is "Halt," given as either foot strikes the ground. On the command "Halt," you will take one more 30-inch step. Next, the trailing foot is brought smartly alongside your front foot. The heels are together, on line and form a 45-degree angle. A coordinated arm swing ceases as the weight of the body shifts to the leading foot when halting.

Equipment for the Color Bearers

Colors Harness. Air Force: black clarino (fake, shiny leather) for performances, dark blue web (same style) for practice. Personal note: If you get any other type of colors harness/sling/carrier than the one show here, you will be restricted in size and quality. Your hand won’t be able to fit at the cup and there are a couple of others issues I’ve come across as well. The AF mandates this type of harness (AFI 34-1201) that is shown below, the Honor Guard Leather Flag Carrier: Double Harness. This image is from Glendale Paradestore.

Ceremonial or Web Belts. All services except the Air Force require belts for team members.

Flagstaff (vs. “Flagpole”). I differentiate between the two. A flagstaff is what color guards carry and are used for indoor display and a flagpole is a permanent structure outside with a single or double halyard. All color guard flagstaffs must be the same height and use the same finial.

Note: The American flag should not be higher than the other flag(s) in the formation. The only exception to this is when the color bearers are so different in height that the colors harness cups/sockets are as close as possible in height, but the American flag is never lower.

All military service color guards use the two-piece light ash wood guidon flagstaff with a ferrule at each end. The AF may also use one-piece staffs. Metal staffs are not authorized. AR 840-10, MCO P5060.2, and AFI 34-1201.

Staff height goes according to the size of the flag:

  1. Organizational flag: 3 feet by 4 feet, mounted on an 8-foot staff. Battle streamers are not authorized on this staff/flag.
  2. Ceremonial flag: 4 feet 4 inches by 5 feet 6 inches mounted on a 9- or 9.5-foot staff. Battle streamers are authorized on this size flag and staff, but may not be authorized for your unit to carry. Check your specific manuals.
  3. Army JROTC female color guards are most often authorized to use aluminum staffs for the color guard competition. It depends on the Standard Operating Procedure for the competition. Other than this, no one is authorized to use any other kind of staff other than what is stated above.

Flag Fringe. The Army and Air Force have gold-colored fringe on all flags carried by a color guard, all of the time. These flags are called indoor-outdoor flags, have a pole hem, and do not have grommets. The Marine Corps, Navy, and Coast Guard have gold-colored fringe on all flags except for the American flag at all times. AR 840-10, MCO P5060.2, and AFI 34-1201. Please read this: To Fringe or Not to Fringe, That is the Question.

Service Standards

  • Army & USAF: Fringe on all colors carried by a color guard. Fringe makes the flag a “ceremonial color”.
  • USMC, USN, & USCG: Fringe on all flags carried by a color team except the National Ensign.

Possible reasoning for not having fringe on the American flag

4 U.S. Code § 1 – Flag stripes and stars on

The flag of the United States shall be thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white and the union of the flag shall be forty-eight stars, white in a blue field. (July 30, 1947, ch. 389, 61 Stat. 642.)

Subsequent chapters talk about adding stars. Fringe is never discussed.

4 U.S. Code § 8 – Respect for flag:

(g) The flag should never have placed upon it, nor on any part of it, nor attached to it any mark, insignia, letter, word, figure, design, picture, or drawing of any nature.

Flagstaff Finial. The only finial (top for the flagstaff) authorized for all services is the silver-colored Army Spade/Spear. Navy and Coast Guard units may use the Gold-colored battle ax. The spread eagle finial is not authorized for any color guard other then the Presidential Color Guard. AR 840-10, NTP 13B, AFI 34-1201. Some states, organizations, or foreign countries may have their own required finial (e.g. Maryland).


A Flag has a header with grommets. A flag is flown from a stationary or mounted pole. Flags are never fringed.

A Flag/Color/Colors is a flag carried by a color guard. Flags posted in a flag stand are not mounted and are therefore, called colors. Read these, All About Flag Sizes. See this article: How to Properly Mount a Flag on a Flagstaff. The Case for Cased Flags and Colors.

Cord and Tassels. Not authorized for use on the smaller, 3′ X 4′, flag. Gold-color is not authorized for any color guard. The only cord authorized for the American flag is colored red, white, and blue. Streamers, when authorized, replace the cord and tassels. AR 840-10, MCO P5060.2, and AFI 34-1201.

Understanding Stationary Drill

Stationary drill consists of drill movements that are accomplished without marching. The drill positions of attention and parade rest are two perfect examples. Other stationary drill commands include parade rest, at ease, left (or right) face, about face and fall out. Some commands, such as present arms and order arms, can be accomplished while moving or while stationary.

Warning: If you don't remember anything else, do not forget to unlock your knees when you're participating in stationary drill. Bend your knees just enough so that it is not visible that you're doing so but enough to allow the blood to flow smoothly through your legs. Failing to unlock your knees will impede the blood flow to your brain so that, after a time (and you will find that stationary drill in the military often requires you to stand still for long periods), you'll grow faint and pass out. It's not a pleasant experience to suddenly find yourself abruptly kissing the asphalt of a parade grinder or the steel of a ship's deck.

To come to the position of attention (see Figure 9-1), bring the heels together smartly (by moving the left foot only) and on line. Place the heels as near each other as the conformation of the body permits and ensure that the feet are turned out equally, forming a 45-degree angle. Keep the legs straight without stiffening or locking the knees. The body is erect with hips level, chest lifted, back arched, and shoulders square and even.

Arms hang straight down alongside the body without stiffness, and the wrists are straight with the forearms. Place thumbs, which are resting along the first joint of the forefinger, along the seams of the trousers or sides of the skirt. Hands are cupped (but not clenched as a fist) with palms facing the leg. The head is kept erect and held straight to the front with the chin drawn in slightly so that the axis of the head and neck is vertical eyes are to the front, with the line of sight parallel to the ground. The weight of the body rests equally on the heels and balls of both feet, and silence and immobility are required.

Remember: To resume the position of attention from any of the rests (except fall out), the command is Flight/Squadron/Group, (group name). Attention. On the preparatory command of Flight, or Squadron, or Group, the individuals assume the position of parade rest. At the command "Attention," assume the position of attention.

Parade rest

This command can be given only when the formation is at the position of attention.

The Preparatory Command is "Parade," and the Command of Execution is "Rest." On the command "Rest," the recruit will raise the left foot just enough to clear the ground and move it smartly to the left so that the heels are 10 inches apart, as measured from the inside of the heels. Keep the legs straight, but not stiff, and the heels on line. As the left foot moves, bring the arms, fully extended, to the back of the body, uncupping the hands in the process, and extend and join the fingers, pointing them toward the ground. The palms will face outward. Place the right hand in the palm of the left, right thumb over the left, to form an X. Keep head and eyes straight ahead and remain silent and immobile.

The command is "At ease." On the command, you may relax in a standing position, but you must keep your right foot in place. Your position in the formation will not change, and silence will be maintained. Your arms may be relaxed, but your thumbs must also stay interlaced.

The command is "Fall out." On the command, you may relax in a standing position or break ranks (move a few steps out of formation). You must remain in the immediate area and return to the formation on the command "Fall in." Moderate speech is permitted.

Right (or left) face

This command can be given only when the formation is at the position of attention.

The commands are "Right face" or "Left face." On the command "Face," raise the right (left) toe and left (right) heel slightly and pivot 90 degrees to the right (left) on the ball of the left (right) foot and the heel of the right (left) foot, assisted by slight pressure on the ball of the left (right) foot. Keep legs bent naturally, not stiff. The upper portion of the body remains at attention. This completes count 1 of the movement. Next, bring the left (right) foot smartly forward, ensuring that your heels are together and on line. Feet should now be forming a 45-degree angle, which means the position of attention has been resumed. This step completes count 2 of the movement.

This command can be given only when the formation is at the position of attention.

The command is "About, face." On the command "Face," lift the right foot from the hip just enough to clear the ground. While naturally bending the knees, place the ball of the right foot approximately half a shoe length behind and slightly to the left of the heel. Distribute the weight of the body on the ball of the right foot and the heel of the left foot. Keep both legs straight but not stiff. The position of the foot has not changed. This step completes the first part of the movement. Keeping the upper portion of the body at the position of attention, pivot 180 degrees to the right on the ball of the right foot and heel of the left foot, with a twisting motion from the hips. Suspend arm swing during the movement and remain as though at attention. On completion of the pivot, heels should be together and in line and feet should form a 45-degree angle. The entire body is now at the position of attention.

Hand salute

The command is "Hand, salute." On the command "Salute," you raise the right hand smartly in the most direct manner while at the same time extending and joining the fingers. Keep the palm flat and facing the body. Place the thumb along the forefingers, keeping the palm flat and forming a straight line between the fingertips and elbows. Tilt the palm slightly toward the face. Hold the upper arm horizontal, slightly forward of the body and parallel to the ground. Ensure that the tip of the right forefinger touches headgear to the right of the right eye. If wearing a nonbilled hat, ensure that the index finger touches the outside corner of the right eyebrow or the front corner of glasses. The rest of the body will remain at the position of attention.

Warning: This procedure is used (in some of the branches) for training purposes only. This command is not usually used in actual military ceremonies.

Present arms and order arms

This procedure can be performed both during stationary drill and while marching.

When not under arms (carrying a rifle), the commands are "Present, arms" and "Order arms." On the command "Present, arms," the individual executes the hand salute. Then the hand salute ends when given the command, "Order arms." When under arms, to present arms, you bring your weapon up in front of you with the trigger facing away from your body order arms is executed by returning the weapon to your side so that the butt is resting on the floor/ground/deck next to your right foot.

From Basic Training for Dummies, copyright © 2011 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Used by arrangement with John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

15-Marine rifle squad: An exclusive look inside the future infantry

When Sgt. Cameron Brower heads out on his next deployment later this year, he’ll operate in a kind of rifle squad that top Marine leaders see as the future of the Corps’ core unit and a way to bring new technologies and capabilities to bear at the lowest tactical levels of warfighting.

Brower, with 2nd Squad, 2nd Platoon, Echo Company, is one squad leader among a couple dozen in the 2nd Battalion, 8th Marine Regiment, Battalion Landing Team with the 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit out of Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.

The unit is the first fully manned deploying unit in the Marine Corps at the 15-Marine rifle squad configuration, unveiled in 2018 by last Commandant Gen. Robert B. Neller. It adds two Marines, an assistant squad leader and a squad systems operator to the decades-old 13-Marine formation.

The move is an effort to put more capabilities in the squad, which some see as the base of the fight in a future battlefield that may require small numbers of Marines to operate in contested areas with a lot of firepower at their fingertips.

It soon may be a 15 Marine rifle squad ― most likely for MEU deployments

In May the commandant decided to cut a Marine from the rifle squad to 12.

That push is a way to get Marines into the ­near-peer fight against adversaries such as the Russian and Chinese militaries. Top Pentagon officials expect any ­regional or broader conflict to include highly contested areas defended by ­sophisticated weapons suites and units with ways to launch more complicated attacks on exposed U.S. forces.

Experimentation with different squad sizes, gear and weapons began at least three years ago, and recommendations ranged widely as to what changes would happen in a military element that’s remained largely unchanged for at least seven decades.

This float isn’t the first one that Brower has ­experienced.

He spent his first few years in the Corps on an Afghanistan deployment and with the 13th MEU. But this will be his first as a squad leader.

Though the unit just composited in early May, some members had a kind of tryout of the ­15-Marine squad and some of its new technologies during field ­exercises earlier this year.

At the same time, the Corps is changing some training requirements, ­shifting retention strategies and adding hefty bonuses to keep critical corporals and ­sergeants in the squad leader role as they try and transform the infantry.

More Marines, more capabilities

Even in early field exercises, Brower saw an ­immediate difference with two more Marines and the gear his squad carried.

The first was that by having the assistant squad leader at his disposal, the first fire team had better ­leadership and he had more time to focus on the “point of friction.” He could maneuver his fire teams and cover more ground, both physically and intellectually, by delegating fires and other communications work off to his assistant.

Others were fundamental to the fire and maneuver that are the heart of the squad.

“We’re realizing we need to be spread out more,” Brower said. “Dispersion’s a lot better and we’re not losing (command and control) with that dispersion.”

And 15 Marines means two more guns in the fight.

“So that’s a lot of people so there’s always rounds going downrange,” Brower said. “Just the simple ranges, normally where there will be a lull with the guns going off, there hasn’t been a lull. There’s always somebody shooting, lead going downrange.”

And Brower’s boss is seeing some of the advantages already from his battalion level.

Battalion commanding officer Lt. Col. Tom Siverts was himself an enlisted Marine for much of his first decade in the Corps. He served in Desert Shield/Storm and, after commissioning, led Marines in Afghanistan, Iraq and on multiple other MEU deployments.

“The assistant squad leader is a hybrid, somewhere between comms and fires,” Siverts said.

The battalion filled out one platoon per company in the 15-Marine model as the accepted Marines from both the fleet and School of Infantry before compositing with the MEU, Siverts said.

The initial exercises, which included weapons and tactics instruction in March and April, allowed the commander to see the 15-Marine model in action with some of what will be the full kit to complement the new approach.

While the battalion wasn’t at full strength and didn’t have all of the new toys to play with, it did have enough to do platoon on platoon fights and employ a basic tool now at their disposal — a squad level drone.

Brower and his squad systems operator, recently promoted Cpl. Justin Solorio, told Marine Corps Times that during realistic urban training they were able to use the quadcopter in many of their raids, launching it over their combined anti-armor team foes, who they later learned never heard nor saw the small quadcopter drone.

That drone, the Instant Eye, has about a half hour flight time with no payload, Solorio said. Its ranges depend on the terrain, dense brush can affect the signal but open desert allows for greater distances.

Though a payload can cut the flight time in half, that payload is often worth it, Solorio said.

That’s because it includes thermal cameras, which make opposing troops easy to spot.

/>This “key formation” illustration shows the 15-Marine squad in the training manual symbology.

“It’s so much better using the payload,” Solorio said. “Instead of looking for little things in the trees, we just use thermals.”

And the device controller stores all of the recorded video for playback later and in case the drone is captured or destroyed, no mission information can be recovered by adversaries.

Each squad has a squad systems operator such as Solorio, who will not only run the drone or potentially future unmanned ground systems but also work tactical level counter-improvised explosive device equipment and electronic warfare jamming gear.

Those two options are already a sea change in what Marines from Brower to Siverts have seen on past deployment.

Siverts said in the past there might be a few RQ-11 Raven drones on hand within the battalion. In recent years those have trickled down to the company level and are still one asset in a larger, layered drone approach.

But never before, except in experimentation, has there been a squad level overhead capability. And that is critical in how the battalion hopes to fight.

“The information they can get from that really facilitates maneuver warfare in my mind,” Siverts said.

And that’s to do with what the high-tech can add to the basic tasks of the infantryman.

“Speed can be security,” Siverts said. “If you have the ability to see where the enemy isn’t it allows you to move faster. I just think it contributes to decision-making.”

And it can lead to some unorthodox thinking.

Battalion Sgt. Maj. Jeremy Johnson told Marine Corps Times that the new tech in the hands of younger Marines brings about some new approaches on how to use that tech.

He saw that in a battalion field exercise earlier this year when one squad used the quadcopter as a decoy.

“Rather than flying it right over (opposing force), they flew in the opposite direction from where the attack was going to come,” Johnson said. “Young Marines come up with stuff that will ­surprise you.”

Solorio said another tactic that he and the other drone operators have adopted in urban settings is to land the drone on a rooftop or ledge. Then then can cut the propellers to save batteries and not make noise but still use the cameras to observe the scene.

Along with the squad drones, each of the Marines in the squad will carry the M27 Infantry Automatic ­Rifle, except for one, which will carry the M38, a more highly accurized M27 with an advanced rifle optic.

That gives the squad better range and a designated marksman in the ranks.

At the same time, each squad will have a grenadier with the new M320 grenade launcher, which users have said is more accurate and also takes the front-load problems off of the Marine’s main rifle.

Though they haven’t gotten them yet, Siverts ­expects that the unit will carry the Carl Gustaf 84 mm recoilless rifle.

The wider Marine Corps plan is to have one per squad and that will replace the current ­positioning, which uses a 0351 infantry assault Marine that resides at weapons company in assault sections that are tasked out to the platoons for greater anti-armor firepower.

/>Marines with Fox Company, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment, prepare to fire at targets during a squad supported attack at the Kaneohe Bay Range Training Facility, Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Mar. 6. (Sgt. Jesus Sepulveda Torres/Marine Corps)

The unit is also taking the Squad Common Optic and new binocular night vision devices that ­drastically increase clarity and swap the old green tinted view for white phosphorous imaging, ­providing greater depth and clarity on night ops.

The single-button optic is easier to use, Brower said and can last up to 48 hours on a single battery charge.

Beyond the equipment and new positions, the ­Marines in these beefed up squads also are ­seeing more training. Brower is a qualified joint fires ­observer. While that’s not a prerequisite for all squad leaders it is a path being pursued for assistant squad leaders within the new formation.

Siverts and Johnson said they’ve linked up with local artillery trainers to put as many Marines as they can fit into the joint fires primer course. While not the fully certified school, the primer course gets Marines exposed to the concepts and prepared for doing those missions.

And training methodologies for those have advanced. Prep work includes online courses to weed out those who might not pass the full course. Virtual trainers and simulations have come a long way from how Johnson and others in his generation were trained.

The sergeant major recalled during his squad leader course the training included a model jet fighter on a stick that was “flown” over a terrain map and when fake bombs were deployed instructors would drop a marble then mark hits with a cotton ball to practice adjusting fire.

The Marine Corps has used a 13-Marine squad model since at least the 1950s with three, ­four-Marine fire teams and a single squad leader.

At first, former Commandant Gen. Robert B. Neller, was going to cut the squad from 13 to 12, which he announced at a Marine awards dinner in May 2018.

That decision was rolled out with fanfare that ­included detailed public relations videos explaining the new configuration and how new technologies and shifted positions would make up for the smaller size.

But it came after his own experiments had ­recommended otherwise.

In 2016, 3rd Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment, conducted six months of experimentation with new configurations and gear. At the end a jointly-written article in Marine Corps Gazette recommended much of the equipment shifts and positions ultimately adopted, and a 15-Marine squad.

The 3/5 recommendations included specializing each of the three fire teams in certain areas. First FT would handle demolitions and rockets, second would take care of ground, air and water-based drones and the third team would run counter drone operations.

Those Marines also recommended the M27 for everyone, adding the M320 grenade launcher and the Carl Gustaf recoilless rifle. They also advocated strongly for light miniature attack munitions, or LMAMs.

The LMAM push seems to have gained supporters above the operational ranks.

The current commandant, Gen. David Berger, who at the time was a three-star over Combat Development Command also testified at the time that shoulder-fired counter drone technologies once seen as the squad or platoon-level solution for enemy drones, “have not panned out.”

To fill that gap, LMAMs may be the answer, ­according to another general.

Lt. Gen. Steven Rudder, deputy commandant for aviation, testified to Congress in April that small, armed drones to counter other drones could provide new ways to defend forward deployed forces.

To fill that counter drone niche, the Marines rely on the ground based air defense-transformation, or GBAD, the ground/air task-oriented radar, or G/ATOR and light ­Marine air defense integrated system, or LMADIS. But those are used at higher echelons beyond the squad.

The squad configuration that 2/8 will deploy later this year adopts some, but not all of those recommendations. They will have M27s, optics, squad drones, new grenade launchers, and the Gustaf and squad-level jamming for IEDs.

Sources told Marine Corps Times that the original move to 12-Marine squads was a way for the top Marine to find other slots within the Corps for manpower desperately needed in the multidomain warfighting realm, which includes primarily cyber and electronic warfare.

By cutting the rifle squads by one position, Neller would have bought the Corps an extra 648 positions within manpower. At the time, the Corps had 1,100 difficult to fill cyber MOSs.

Neller’s 12-Marine squad lasted only a few months and soon top leadership moved to the 15-Marine model.

That fell in line with the thinking of one of Neller’s predecessors, interviewed by Marine Corps Times in March.

Retired former Commandant Gen. Charles C. Krulak, who led the Marine Corps from 1995 to 1999, said that basic structure of the squad was sound, though adding one or two Marines could help. How do that wasn’t up for debate, in his mind.

“I am a firm believer that if you’re going to make a cut, you don’t salami slice the combat arms. If you’re going to make cuts, make a dramatic cut, cut a battalion, cut a regiment, cut an air squadron or group. Do that if you need the people,” Krulak said. “But, for goodness sake don’t just say okay we are going to slice a little bit out of everything.”

The Marines are a bit of an outlier in their formations. Infantry studies conducted shortly after World War II and in the early 1960s put nine troops in a squad as the ideal for command and control. Larger formations were deemed unwieldy and smaller units were too easily rendered combat ineffective through just a few casualties.

And neither the current 13-Marine nor evolving 15-Marine squad is what either other services or adversaries use.

The U.S. Army, for instance, uses a nine-soldier squad model. But that’s primarily because the ­formations of the Army operate more at the platoon or company level when mounting massed forces.

The Corps is expeditionary by nature so is overall smaller but has deeper wells of manpower within smaller, core formations such as the fire team and squad.

Adversaries such as Iran use an even larger formation, sporting 16-soldier squads with a squad leader, sniper, two-soldier rocket team, three, four-soldier fire teams all with automatic rifles, according to an article titled “Infantry Building Blocks,” published in the May-June 2018 issue of Military Review.

The same article described China’s dismounted infantry squads as nine to 10-soldier formations with a squad leader and three, three-soldier cells, largely devoted to anti-armor missions.

Russia has a different configuration entirely, centering even their “dismounted” squads around the use of either a BMP infantry fighting vehicle, which is tracked, or a BTR wheeled armored personnel carrier, according to “The Russian Way of War,” published by the U.S. Army University Press in 2016.

Those squads have six members, a squad leader with a senior rifleman, rifleman, machine gunner, grenadier and assistant grenadier, according to the publication.

Challenges and opportunities

What 2/8 finds on its upcoming deployment, set to leave at an undisclosed date later this year, will likely feed back into how the rest of the Corps evolves the squad both through personnel and technology.

Meantime, the Corps has a whole is prioritizing the squad in a way it never has before with new training approaches and cash.

Some of that comes from a recognition of the sacrifice and value of the infantry and other close combat units such as scouts and engineers that’s seeing a renaissance in both the Army and the Marine Corps.

And while commandants such as Neller and Berger are themselves from the ground combat forces, the top Marine doesn’t always get the full say in funding.

That’s been helped, to a degree, by the Close Combat Lethality Task Force. The task force was established by former Secretary of Defense Jim Mattis, himself a career infantry Marine.

/>A Marine with 3rd Battalion, 8th Marine Regiment, passes information to his squad before a simulated combat patrol in the Infantry Immersion Trainer, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, July 16. (1st Lt. Christin St. John/Marine Corps)

The task force has helped redirect funding into better weapons, optics, body armor and training to the infantry and close combat formations in both services. It has also begun an extensive review of training modalities, recruiting and retention to form a “Close Combat 100,000” priority for projects that affect the ground combat element.

But with the good news for grunts comes other challenges.

Data obtained by Marine Corps Times showed that the Army is short by 5,000 soldiers for junior ­infantrymen, meaning its current manning levels for infantry at that rank range is at 79 percent.

To close that gap, the Army put out a $40,000 bonus for new recruits and up to $72,000 for soldiers who reclassify into infantry.

Trending low completion rates by Marines to ­become certified MOS-carrying 0365 squad leaders has pushed the Corps last year to throw a $30,000 bonus for 36-48 month contracts and a potential $40,000 kicker for the 72-month lateral move, totaling a possible $70,000 for Marine squad leaders.

Just completing the rifle squad leader course and agreeing to stay on with an infantry battalion for two years garnered a $10,000 bonus.

The Marines dished out a $57,000 bonus, starting in July for 0365s to re-enlist.

While the deploying forces are bringing a fresh way of fighting the rifle squad that hasn’t seen dramatic changes since before the Vietnam War, finding the right Marines who can do the job and will stay in it remains a challenge.

Excerpt: The Real All Americans

Chapter 8: Dodges and Deception

Note: Author's footnotes have been omitted.

In 1903, Carlisle fashioned a unique solution to its problems. Other teams continued to plow predictably ahead, carrying the ball upfield with bruising strength. But Warner and the Indians decided to do something totally different that season. They became the first team in history to hide the ball.

As usual, Carlisle lacked the numbers and the poundage to play the game straight up. In late August, just as Warner was about to return from his vacation to start practice, Pratt wrote with typical bad news. "Arthur Bonnicastle, William Hole in the Day, and George Johnson have run away Felix Highrock has been sent home on account of consumption and Hiram Runnells has been expelled," Pratt informed him.

Warner resignedly went to work with what was left of his squad. Three of the twenty-four men on the Carlisle team had never even played football before. Fully half the members had only played the game for two or three seasons. On hand to assist, however, was Bemus Pierce, who had returned to campus to serve as Warner's assistant coach.

"There is a great scarcity of heavy material, and indications are that the team will be even lighter in weight than last year," reported the school newspaper, the Red Man and Helper, "but there is said to be a good fighting spirit among the candidates and the team may be able to prove the old saying that 'victory is not always to the strong but to the active, the vigilant, and the brave.'"

Carlisle had one great weapon: quarterback and team captain Jimmie Johnson, a team veteran with five years' experience. Johnson was a Stockbridge from Wisconsin who weighed all of 140 pounds, and he looked like a changeling, with a small, triangular, brooding face. He was so slender that his football pants billowed around him. But he had a superb head for strategy, and he not only mastered Warner's schemes and innovations but added to them with his decision making on the field.

The Indians had always favored shifty, quick-firing plays, to neutralize superior force. But now they were more deceptive than ever. Warner installed crisscrosses, feints, and a piece of razzle-dazzle called a double pass: Johnson would turn and toss the ball to a halfback sweeping laterally, who then tossed it back to the quick-footed quarterback. In Johnson's hands, the shifting Carlisle lines looked like a shuffling deck of cards.

As the practices wore on, the Indians strained even Warner's enthusiasm for a ploy. Anything went, so long as there wasn't a rule against it. There was no artifice, con, contrivance, dupe, trap, or double cross the team didn't want to run. Trick plays were what they loved best. "Nothing delighted them more than to outsmart the palefaces," Warner remembered.

One afternoon, just to keep his players interested during a scrimmage, Warner introduced the Indians to a play he had dreamed up as a young Cornell coach. It was called the "hunchback" or "hiddenball" trick, and it was more of a stunt than a play. There was something about it, in fact, that had a touch of irreverence.

The play required every man on the team to fill a role, and it also required a sewing machine. Warner enlisted the help of Carlisle's tailor, Mose Blumenthal, who owned the men's clothing store in town.

Warner had Blumenthal sew elastic bands into the waists of two or three players' jerseys. Among those he selected was that of Charles Dillon, one of their larger players, a Sioux lineman who stood nearly six feet and weighed 190 pounds. Dillon was a perfect choice for the trick play: although he was a guard in the Carlisle line, he had scathing foot speed, able to run the hundred-yard dash in ten seconds.

Once the jersey was doctored, Warner instructed Dillon to wear the shirt untucked, so the opposition would get used to seeing it that way.

The play was designed for a kickoff. As the ball descended into the arms of quarterback Johnson, the other players would huddle around him, facing outward. Hidden from view, Johnson would slip the ball up the back of Dillon's jersey. It was Exendine's job to pull out Dillon's elastic waist. The huddle would then split apart, leaving the opposing team with no idea where the ball had gone.

The Indians were enraptured by the play and wanted to use it right away. But Warner restrained them: the play was risky, and he wasn't even sure it was entirely legal or sporting. He had only tried it once, in an obscure game between Cornell and Penn State. And the truth was, Warner was a little ashamed to rely on tricks instead of the more conventional power game. "Neither the Indian boys nor myself considered the hidden ball play to be strictly legitimate," he said later.

But Warner believed the play was good for one thing: it would punish any team that took the Indians lightly. And there was one team in particular that had a tendency to do so—Harvard.

Carlisle had developed something of a rivalry with Harvard, and though the Indians had never beaten the Crimson, they always gave them a game. The Indians both admired and resented the Crimson, in equal amounts. They loved to sarcastically mimic the Harvard accent even players who could barely speak English would drawl the broad Harvard a. But Harvard was also the Indians' idea of collegiate perfection, and they labeled any excellent performance, whether on the field or in the classroom, as "Harvard style."

By the time Carlisle checked into the Copley Square Hotel in Boston on October 30, 1902, the team had a 5-1 record and a growing reputation for guile. The Boston correspondent for the New York World reported on the eve of the game, "As usual, the Indians will probably spring some startling trick plays upon the Crimson team. . . . If the Indians once get fairly started . . . there is no telling where they will stop."

But Harvard seemed to view the game as a mere scrimmage. As the Indians lounged in the lobby of the hotel and read the reports in local papers, it was obvious that the Crimson players took a victory for granted. Harvard's committee of graduate coaches seemed far more preoccupied by their next opponents, Columbia and Yale, than by Carlisle, especially a vociferous former Crimson fullback named Percy Haughton, class of '98, who hollered during practice, "Yale will rush you way down the field before you wake up!" What Carlisle might do did not seem to concern him.

On the day of the game, a near-capacity crowd of twelve thousand filled Soldier Field, but the size of the crowd had less to do with Harvard's opponent than it did with the nostalgic occasion: it was the last game scheduled to be played there. The new, thirty-five-thousandseat Harvard Stadium, a steel-reinforced concrete structure that was the first of its kind, and mammoth for its day, was to open two weeks later—just in time for the Yale game. Soldier Field was to be demolished.

As the Indians warmed up, the stadium hummed with anticipation of an easy victory. The Indians were visibly dwarfed by the Crimson. Their heaviest player was the center Shouchuk at 165 pounds, while two Harvard linemen checked in at 215. The Indians' uniforms even seemed too big for them. Tightly cinched belts held up their baggy knee pants. Heavy flannel pads sewn into their sweaters at the shoulders and elbows, and ribbed socks, added only a little substance to their slight figures.

But as the game began, Johnson directed the Indians in lightning line charges, and the Crimson defense ripped like paper. The Indians constantly shifted and realigned, tossing the ball back and forth. Johnson would fake a run to the outside only to hand the ball to Exendine, coming around from the end. The Indians moved all the way to the Harvard eighteen-yard line, where Johnson kicked a field goal that arced straight through the uprights.

Trick plays worried the Crimson throughout the first half. Johnson bluffed them on punt returns, holding his arms out as if he was going to wait for the ball, only to snatch it out of the air on a dead run. Harvard was scoreless as the first half ended.

Warner was emboldened. In the locker room, as he went over second-half strategy, he called the play his team had been waiting for all season. On the kickoff, he said, run the hunchback trick.

Johnson led the Indians back onto the field. The referee, Mike Thompson, raised his arm and asked the Indians if they were ready. Johnson nodded and glanced at Dillon. The two men dropped back a little deeper than usual, to the five-yard line. A Harvard kicker sent the ball into the air.

Johnson and the rest of the Indians gazed upward and followed the long, lazy flight of the ball. It was a perfect kick.

"Instantly we realized the kick was made to order," Exendine recalled. "We raced back to form a wedge for Jimmie and Dillon."

Johnson gathered the ball in, and the Indians formed a wall in front of the quarterback. Ducking behind the cluster of teammates, Exendine pulled out the back of Dillon's jersey. Johnson slipped the ball beneath it.

Johnson yelled, "Go!" The Indians scattered. Each player hugged his stomach, as if he held the ball. The Harvard players bore down on them.

As the Crimson slowed, looking for the ball, Dillon ran straight through them and up the field, his arms swinging freely. After thirty yards, Dillon was alone and in the clear.

Johnson, meanwhile, ran for the sidelines with his arms doubled over his midsection, as if he had the ball. A Harvard man launched himself at Johnson, who tripped. As Johnson went down, another Crimson player fell on top of him, and then another, and then another. "I guess the whole Harvard team hit me," Johnson said later. The crowd roared. But Johnson was empty-handed.

Suddenly, a roar swept the stadium. Dillon continued to lope in a straight line toward the opposite goal. The hump beneath his sweater had become obvious. The roar deepened: Dillon was the ball carrier.

While everyone in the stands knew it, not a single Harvard player seemed to realize what was happening. The Crimson were still chasing the Carlisle backs and slamming them to the turf. Carl Marshall, the Harvard team captain, had been playing safety on the kickoff, and as Dillon came toward him, Marshall, thinking he was a blocker, stepped neatly out of the way and let him go by.

Spectators gasped, screamed, and pointed to Dillon as he galloped closer and closer to the end zone. And as the Harvard players still scuttled around wildly, looking for the ball, the crowd began to shriek with laughter.

Finally, Marshall understood what was happening. The Harvard man wheeled and chased vainly after Dillon for the last several yards.

Dillon tumbled across the end line, exhausted. The rest of the Indians raced to join him. Johnson jerked the ball out of Dillon's sweater and triumphantly placed it on the turf for the touchdown. Soldier Field measured 110 yards, and Dillon had just sprinted 103 yards, untouched.

On the Harvard sideline, the players were fuming. Harvard coach John Cranston violently protested to Thompson, the official. But Warner had taken the precaution of warning Thompson that his team might attempt the play, and the referee had watched carefully as it unfolded. He signaled a touchdown.

A celebration erupted on the Carlisle sideline. The Indians had just outwitted and embarrassed the foremost university in the country— Carlisle style—and taken an 11-0 lead. "I don't think any one thing ever gave them greater joy," Warner said later.

But the game was far from over. The Crimson were incensed, and the game from then on was a mauling. Time after time, the measuring sticks were called for. Harvard's superior depth and size began to tell. The Indians "looked like children against the Harvard giants," Warner remembered.

The Crimson flooded the field with fresh players, while the Indian starters were on the brink of exhaustion. Harvard bulled its way over the line for a touchdown. To Warner, watching helplessly from the sideline, it seemed that "every Indian was out on his feet." Harvard scored again, and went ahead, 12-11.

There was one last chance: Harvard fumbled at its own forty, and Carlisle got the ball. Johnson took over and directed the Indians to the fifteen-yard line, with a few seconds to go. Johnson made one last dash at the center of the line—but he was met by the full force of the Crimson line and fumbled. Harvard took over as time expired, to preserve the 12-11 victory.

"For once however there was no mourning after a loss," Warner remembered. The final score only slightly dampened the Indians' joy over the hidden-ball trick. On the trip home, the players relived the play over and over again.

The Indians had lost again, but the trick made headlines across the country. The New York Times called it "one of the most spectacular, unforeseen and unique expedients ever used against a member of the big four." The New York World ran an exhaustive series of follow-up stories explaining and diagramming the play. "It was decidedly the feature of the game and will undoubtedly give rise to a vast deal of discussion." Which it did—lasting for days. At Harvard, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, class of '04, the president of the Crimson newspaper and former captain of the freshman team, railed at the embarrassment.

For the first time, the Indians were credited with intelligence. The Carlisle school paper excerpted praise for them from all over the country, including this comment from the Norfolk Landmark: "More strategy was displayed by the Indians in this contest than has been displayed by any of the big four teams this year. The standard of education at Harvard and the rest seems to be falling. Think of the reflection on scholarship when a lot of lightweight Indians make monkeys of the great leaders at football!"

The World's leading sportswriter was Charles Chadwick, a former Yale star, who like so many sportswriters had often written patronizingly of the Indians. In 1899 he declared, "The redskins are always easily open to a surprise of any kind." Now a repentant Chadwick joined the admiring chorus: the Indians had not only intellect but wit.

"The poor Indian, so often sized up as deficient in headwork, has at last earned the right to be considered as something more than a tireless, clumsy piece of football mechanism," Chadwick wrote. "He is now to be regarded as a person of craft. He has added his quota to the history of strategic football. But where, outside of the columns of the Harvard Lampoon or the Yale Record, would anyone hope to see such a delightful combination of football with hide and seek, such a burlesque of strategy put forth in all earnestness?"

But the play was controversial, too, and some football experts were disapproving. Coaches discussed whether the play was permissible. At the University of Chicago, Stagg termed it "parlor magic." Camp decided that while it was clever and technically legal—barely—it was a bad precedent. "Its success is sure to result in imitation unless a rule is passed to cover it," the World noted. In fact, it would be outlawed.

As the controversy went on, there was one person at Carlisle for whom the play lost some of its luster: Warner. The head coach became defensive, especially against charges that the play was not real football or somehow not aboveboard. "We have two or three tricks and Dillon's is one," he bridled. "It may not be straight out football but it is strategy that works very well and no rule covers it. . . . There is nothing in the rules to prevent the play."

For Warner, the hidden-ball play was a curiously defining event, one that exposed a fracture in his personality. The trick was the ultimate expression of a rogue and an outsider who took pleasure in mocking Harvard's pretensions. But in the aftermath, a less secure Warner emerged. The gambler in him had an impulse for bending rules, yet the Cornell social climber clearly wanted the regard of the Ivy establishment.

With the hidden-ball trick, Warner struck on a compromised ethic, one that he hoped allowed him to be innovative and respectable at the same time: if a rule didn't exist, then it was impossible to break it. "There is nothing in the rules to prevent it" was his battle cry.

But as the play continued to draw national attention, he grew increasingly self-conscious about it and suggested it was somehow beneath him. "It can hardly be considered varsity football, but I think it is all right for the Indians to use," he said, loftily. "Harvard was caught napping. It's a trick that can only be used every once in a great while and it pleased the Indians to get away with it."

Even thirty years later, Warner was still ambivalent about the play. In a memoir he wrote for Collier's Weekly, he said, "We never considered it a strictly legitimate play and only employed it against Harvard as a good joke on the haughty Crimson players." On another occasion later in his life he remarked, "In a way I'm glad that Harvard was able to come back to win because I never liked to win a game on a fluke, although the hidden ball play was within the rules at that time."

But the trick was a significant breakthrough for the Indians, a group of young men with little hope of social acceptance in white America, and within whom there must have dwelled a complicated mix of ambitions and frustrations. It was difficult if not impossible for the Carlisle players to escape the larger, depressing context of Indian affairs. Even if they wanted to, they couldn't. If there was any doubt of that, a tragic event reminded them of their position on the Monday morning after the game.

Excerpted from The Real All Americans by Sally Jenkins Copyright © 2007 by Sally Jenkins. Excerpted by permission of Doubleday, a division of Random House, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.

The squad is a soldier’s most intimate group, consisting of six to ten soldiers. A squad is commanded by a staff sergeant or sergeant.

The Vietnam War, the Emmy-nominated, 10-part, 18-hour documentary film series by Ken Burns and Lynn Novick, can be streamed on demand by members of PBS stations again, starting August 4, 2020, in addition to all the films of The Ken Burns Collection. An immersive 360-degree narrative, the series tells the epic story of the Vietnam War as it has never before been told on film. The Vietnam War receives an encore marathon broadcast on THIRTEEN, August 29 and 30. See for tune-in times.

For more stories about those who fought in Vietnam, stream “Saved in Vietnam” from We’ll Meet Again Season 2, produced and hosted by Ann Curry. In the episode, Curry helps two Vietnam veterans search for the heroes who saved them. An Army officer searches for the helicopter pilot who rescued him, while another soldier wants to reconnect with the surgeon who saved his leg from amputation.

Adjustable Wrenches

In the post-war years Craftsman adjustable wrenches were supplied by J.H. Williams and by other makers not yet identified.

Craftsman "Y-Circle" 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench

The next two figures show examples of a series of adjustable wrenches offered during the 1950s, notable for the distinctive placement of the hanging hole in the interior of the shank, rather than at the extreme end. This style of adjustable wrench was still illustrated in the 1957 Craftsman catalog, but was not offered in 1960.

Fig. 49 shows a Craftsman 8 inch adjustable wrench, marked with "8 In." and the Craftsman double-line logo forged into the front, with a "Forged in U.S.A." and a Y-Circle logo forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.1 inches, and the maximum opening is 0.9 inches. The head thickness was measured at 0.47 inches.

The finish is plain steel with traces of plating, possibly zinc or cadmium.

Note that the hanging hole is located in the interior of the depressed panel, rather than at the extreme end.

Craftsman "Y-Circle" 12 Inch Adjustable Wrench

Fig. 50 shows a Craftsman 12 inch adjustable wrench, marked with "12 In." and the Craftsman double-line logo forged into the front, with a "Forged in U.S.A." and a Y-Circle logo forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 12.1 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.3 inches. The head thickness was measured at 0.72 inches.

The wrench has a bright plated finish that resembles zinc, and the finish is soft enough to leave a mark on paper.

The upper inset shows a close-up of the Y-Circle logo forged into the shank.

We hope to be able to identify the manufacturer behind the Y-Circle code in the near future. One construction detail noted is that the screw pin is threaded on the outside (slotted) end, the type of pin generally used by Danielson and Utica. In contrast, Crescent and Diamond used a screw pin threaded on the inside end.

Craftsman 8 Inch Locking Adjustable Wrench

The next several figures show examples of Williams adjustable wrenches produced for the Craftsman brand.

Fig. 51 shows a Craftsman 8 inch adjustable wrench with a locking pin, marked with "Patd in U.S.A." and the Craftsman double-line logo forged into the front, with "Made in U.S.A." and an AZ-Circle logo forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.0 inches. The head thickness was measured at 0.47 inches.

The finish is chrome plating, with minor losses due to rust and wear.

The middle inset shows a close-up of the AZ-Circle logo forged into the shank.

The upper inset shows a side view of the wrench, illustrating the square shoulder used for the sliding jaw and keyway. The square shoulder is a feature patented by J.H. Williams in the 1930s (see patent #2,112,840) and is not known to have been used by any other manufacturers.

The patent notice refers to patent #2,719,449, filed by W.J. Johnson in 1953 and issued in 1955. This patent describes a locking mechanism for adjustable wrenches, actuated by pushing a locking pin (visible in the photograph) through the thumb knurl. An example of a Williams wrench with this locking mechanism can be seen as the Williams APL-6 Adjustable Wrench.

Craftsman 10 Inch Locking Adjustable Wrench

Fig. 52 shows a Craftsman 10 inch adjustable wrench with a locking pin, marked with "Patd in U.S.A." and the Craftsman double-line logo forged into the front, with "Made in U.S.A." and an AZ-Circle logo forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 10.2 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.2 inches. The head thickness was measured at 0.60 inches.

The finish is chrome plating, with some losses due to rust and pitting.

The middle inset shows a close-up of the AZ-Circle logo forged into the shank.

The upper inset shows a side view of the wrench, illustrating the square shoulder used for the sliding jaw and keyway. The square shoulder is a feature patented by J.H. Williams in the 1930s (see patent #2,112,840) and is not known to have been used by any other manufacturers.

The patent notice refers to patent #2,719,449, filed by W.J. Johnson in 1953 and issued in 1955. This patent describes a locking mechanism for adjustable wrenches, actuated by pushing a locking pin (visible in the photograph) through the thumb knurl. An example of a Williams wrench with this locking mechanism can be seen as the Williams APL-6 Adjustable Wrench.

Craftsman 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench

Fig. 53 shows a Craftsman 8 inch adjustable wrench, stamped "Forged" on the front with "Made in U.S.A." and "JW - Alloy" on the reverse. The reverse shank also shows a forged-in code "L" next to the hole.

The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.0 inches. The head thickness was measured at 0.50 inches.

The finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The upper inset shows a side view of the wrench, and a close look shows the square shoulder for the sliding jaw and keyway. The square shoulder was a patented feature of the J.H. Williams adjustable wrenches, and is not known to have been used by any other manufacturers.

This wrench can be identified as Williams' production by the square-shouldered keyway, and the stamped "JW" code further confirms the maker. The forged-in "L" code has also been observed on J.H. Williams wrenches see for example the Williams AP-8 "Superjustable" Wrench.

This particular wrench is believed to have been purchased new in the late 1960s to early 1970s, a time before Craftsman began marking model numbers on its tools. The next figure shows a similar wrench with a Craftsman model number.

Craftsman 44604 "JW" 10 Inch Adjustable Wrench

Fig. 54 shows a somewhat later example of Williams' production, a Craftsman 44604 10 inch adjustable wrench. The shank is stamped with "-Craftsman-" and "Forged" on the front, with "Made in U.S.A." and "JW - Alloy" on the reverse. A forged-in code "L" appears on the reverse as well.

The overall length is 10.2 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.2 inches. The head thickness was measured at 0.60 inches.

The finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The upper inset shows a side view of the wrench, with the square shoulder visible on the sliding jaw and keyway.

The first competitions

Other milestones were now to follow. Football Association Challenge Cup (FA Cup) became the first important competition when it was run in 1871. The following year a match between two national teams was played for the first time. The match that involved England and Scotland ended 0-0 and was followed by 4,000 people at Hamilton Crescent (the picture shows illustrations from this occasion).

Twelve years later, in 1883, the first international tournament took place and included four national teams: England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

Football was for a long time a British phenomenon, but it gradually spread to other European countries. The first game that took place outside Europe occurred in Argentina in 1867, but it was foreign British workers who were involved and not Argentinean citizens.

The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) was founded in 1904 and a foundation act was signed by representatives from France, Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. England and the other British countries did not join FIFA from the start, they had invented the game and saw no reason to subordinate to an association. Still, they joined in the following year, but would not partake in the World Cup until 1950.

Domestic leagues occurred in many countries. The first was, as already mentioned, the English Football League which was established in 1888. The leagues would by time expand by more divisions, which were based on team performance.

In 1908 would football for the first time be included as an official sport in the Olympic Games. Until the first FIFA World Cup was played in 1930, the Olympic Games football tournament would rank as the most prestigious on a national level. Women's football was not added until 1996.

Black players

As in many other sports the white male was predominant for a long time. In football black players started being present relatively early and in comparison with, for example, tennis, football has traditionally been known as a sport with a mix of black and white players.

In Britain, Andrew Watson is known to be the first black player, and he played in the Scottish club Queen’s Park in the 1880s.

A game of passion

Few other sports show examples of passion to that extent as football. The arenas are flocked by shearing people and in front of television even more are watching carefully and sometimes with great enthusiasm.

Already in the late 19th century, Goodison Park was built in England in purpose of hosting football games. In 1894, the FA Cup final between Notts County and Bolton Wanderers was attended by 37,000 people. A milestone in the development of football stadiums is the construction of Maracanã Stadium. In the year of 1950 the imposing stadium in Rio de Janeiro was ready for almost 200,000 people. No other sport has seen stadiums of that capacity built to host its games.

There have been two different traditions of fan culture on the arenas: the British and the South American. The British fans adopted the tradition of singing, the repertoire was inspired from pub and working songs among other areas. The South Americans on the other hand would adopt the carnival style which included firecrackers and fireworks, and also the modern phenomena of Bengali fires. Fans in other countries have later adopted a mixture of these traditions.

The great modern competitions

No other sport event besides the Summer Olympic Games can today measure itself with the FIFA World Cup. The first edition of the FIFA World Cup was played in 1930 in Uruguay and has since then returned every fourth year (with two exceptions due to the Second World War). In 1991 the first World Cup for women was held in China and has since then also returned every fourth year.

Today the biggest global tournament for clubs is the Champions League (played since 1992), the former European Cup (1955–1991).

Globalization of the biggest sport in the world

In the late 19th century, only a few national football teams existed England and Scotland had the first active teams that played games against each other in the 1870s. Today there are 211 national associations included in the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the world governing body of the sport. Another proof of the globalization could be seen in the increase of nations participating in the World Cup qualifiers: from 32 in 1934 to over 200 in 2014.

The world regions have been divided into six confederations: Confédération Africaine de Football (CAF), Asian Football Confederation (AFC), Union des Associations Européennes de Football (UEFA), The Confederation of North, Central America and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF), Oceania Football Confederation (OFC), and Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol (CONMEBOL).

Football is definitely a global sport and without comparison the biggest in the world. A quote from David Goldblatt's book The Ball is Round is one way to answer why:

It offers the spotlight for individual brilliance while relishing the defiance and heart of collective endeavor. It has staged tragedy and comedy, epic and pantomime, unsophisticated music hall and inaccessible experimental performances. It does imperious triumph, lucky escapes, impossible comebacks and stubborn stalemates. It captures the brilliance of unpredictability, the uncertainty of the human heart and human skill, of improvisation and chance.

The name of the game: football or soccer?

In most parts of the world, football is used as the name for the &ldquochess of the green pitch&rdquo, the biggest sport in the world. In the United States and Canada, however, soccer is used instead as a distinction from American football. A more formal name sometimes used is association football, but in popular speech, it is either football or soccer.

Watch the video: ශර ලක යදධ හමදව රජමනත සහ බලකයන - Regiments and Corps of the Sri Lanka Army - MM (July 2022).


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