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22 April 1940
British and Norwegian troops are fighting the Germans around Lillehammer
Important Events From This day in History April 22nd
Celebrating Birthdays Today
Born: Peter Kenneth Frampton 22 April 1950 Beckenham, Kent, England
Known For : English musician, singer, producer, and multi-instrumentalist. He started in the bands The Herd and then Humble Pie but decided to go as a solo artist with his debut album in 1972 "Wind of Change" , he did not become a big massive commercial success until his album "Frampton Comes Alive!" was released in 1976 and hit top 10 around the world including number 1 in the US. He is still playing and his last album "Fingerprints" was released in 1976.
Born: John Joseph Nicholson April 22, 1937 New York, United States
Known For : American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter best known for his many great acting parts which has seen him nominated for an Academy Award 12 times, he has won Best Actor twice once for One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest and the second time for As Good as it Gets, he also won Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for Terms of Endearment. To list all his films would take far to long so here are just those others he was nominated for Easy Rider ( 1969 ), Five Easy Pieces ( 1970 ), The Last Detail ( 1973 ), Chinatown ( 1974 ), Reds ( 1981 ), Prizzi's Honor ( 1985 ), Ironweed (1987 ), A Few Good Men ( 1992 ) , About Schmidt ( 2002 ) what an achievement and those do not include some of my own favorites Batman -- The Joker ( 1989 ) and The Departed --- Francis 'Frank' Costello ( 2006 ) , I do not think many actors ever could achieve the level of success over the last 40 years. Joker vs Joker Video (Jack Nicholson vs Heath Ledger).
Fulbeck Tragedy - 22nd April 1945
I am trying to find some information on a member of the crew of PB463 that crashed at Fulbeck on 22nd April 1945. Do any ppruners have any information or access to information that may help?
The aircraft, a Lancaster III of 49 Sqn, was flying from Fulbeck to Syerston. The pilot appears to have decided to do a farewell 'beat up' but during this the aircraft hit the ground. It crashed into a building and then into a group of airmen who were parading nearby.
The crew of six was killed and 15 on the ground were killed or died of their injuries later.
I have pinched this info from Bill Chorley's book: "Bomber Command Losses - 1945" and can quote you the names if you wish.
Thanks both, have got the basic details of the incident, trying to find out more about the flight engineer FS Cyril Walker and his earlier ops, as I have discovered a family connection.
His sister is still alive and would like to fill in some gaps in his short life, he was only 20 when he died. The accident happened only 3 days before the sqn suspended ops at the end of the war - tough break.
The record of sorties flown by Cyril Walker will be available in the RAF Form 541 for the squadron. This document and the squadron monthly diary (the RAF Form 540) are available at the National Archives. You can search this yourself on a visit or employ a researcher to copy the documents for you.
His Record of Service is available to surviving next of kin. This can be obtained from the Personnel Disclosures Dept at Trenchard Hall, RAF Cranwell, NG34 8HB. There is a fee and proof of relationship is required.
There might be a 49 Sqn Association but as the sqn was last disbanded in April 1965, members might be few and far between.
It might be that such a large loss of life would have resulted in press coverage in the Lincoln/Grantham press, even in the days of censure. It is also possible that somebody might have put a memorial of some sort in the local church or perhaps near the site of the airfield - all lines of enquiry.
On April 22, 1970, the first Earth Day, a nationwide program to spend one day considering issues of environmental protection, is observed in Seattle with teach-ins at the University of Washington and at the Seattle Center.
Senator Henry M. Jackson (1912-1983) addressed some 500 students from the University of Washington and Garfield High School, but was heckled by anti-Vietnam War protesters. He told the group, "You and I know we can't solve this problem [the rape of the earth] with slogans . by trying to shout someone down" (Seattle Post Intelligencer). Ironically, Sen. Jackson sponsored the original National Environmental Policy Act, which mandated environmental impact statements and gave activists one of their most powerful tools.
A noon rally at Westlake Mall drew only 50 or so participants, but later that evening, some 3,000 persons crowded together at Seattle Center to look at exhibit booths, view films, listen to speeches and panel discussions, and to collect signatures and money. Seattle Mayor Wes Uhlman (b. 1935) challenged the audience to go to the next demonstration in buses instead of in private cars, to fight pollution.
Earth Day was the brainchild of U.S. Senator Gaylord Nelson (D. Wisc.), and coordinated from Washington D.C. by Denis Hayes (b. 1945), who now directs Seattle's Bullitt Foundation. Observing the success of anti-war teach-ins, they proposed a day of teach-ins on college campuses to raise awareness of environmental issues. The plan spread until an estimated 10 million school children took part as well as college and university students. Congress adjourned for the day. Earth Day continues to be observed each year on April 22.
Earth Day booth, Seattle, April 22, 1970
Photo by Tom Barlet, Courtesy MOHAI (1986.5.52123.1)
Earth poses for one of its first photographs from space, ca. 1970
Earthday rally at Westlake Mall, 1970
The Seattle Times, April 23, 1970, p. A-2 Seattle Post-Intelligencer, April 23, 1970, B, 2 Marc Mowrey and Tim Redmond, Not in My Backyard, (New York: William Morrow, 1993), 30.
22 April 1940 - History
Rock 'n' Roll History for
Alan Freed premieres his last Rock 'n' Roll movie, Go Johnny Go, starring Chuck Berry, Jackie Wilson, Ritchie Valens, Eddie Cochran, Jimmy Cavallo and The Flamingos.
Jerry Lee Lewis' three-year-old son, Steve Allen Lewis, drowned in the shallow water of a still under construction swimming pool at the Lewis home near Coro Lake, Tennessee.
In the UK, the President of the National Federation Of Hairdressers offered a free haircut to the next group to reach the top of the Pop chart. He was quoted as saying 'The Rolling Stones are the worst, one of them looks as if he's got a feather duster on his head.'
Trumpeter Herb Alpert sang "This Guy's In Love With You" on his CBS-TV special. The Burt Bacharach / Hal David composition would rise to the top of the US chart, where it stayed for four weeks. It reached #3 in the UK.
John Winston Lennon legally changed his name to John Winston Ono Lennon during a short ceremony on the roof of the Apple Records building in London. John always hated his middle name, given to him by his mother in honor of Winston Churchill, but British law did not allow him to change it. He could however add Ono, and would never use Winston again, except for legal documents.
The Carpenters sign with A&M Records, where they will have twenty Billboard Top 40 hits.
The Who give their first complete live performance of the Rock opera Tommy at a show in Dolton, England.
The L.A. group Redbone earned a Gold record for the single "Come and Get Your Love", which was currently #5 on the Hot 100.
Johnnie Taylor's "Disco Lady" becomes the first song to be certified Platinum by the RIAA (for two million copies sold).
Bob Marley And The Wailers perform at the One Love Peace Concert in Jamaica. It was Marley's first public appearance in Jamaica since being wounded in an assassination attempt a year and a half earlier.
Former Stealers Wheel vocalist Gerry Rafferty releases his biggest solo hit, "Baker Street". It will reach #2 on the Hot 100 and #3 in the UK and was written about one of London's most famous streets, home to Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's fictional detective, Sherlock Holmes.
The Rolling Stones played two concerts for the blind at the Civic Auditorium in Oshawa, Ontario. The shows were done in lieu of a jail sentence for guitarist Keith Richards, who was convicted of heroin possession in Toronto two years earlier.
Two days after being released from a St. Paul, Minnesota hospital following a month-long treatment for bleeding ulcers, Eric Clapton is involved in a car accident and is hospitalized in Seattle, Washington, suffering bruised ribs and a lacerated shin.
The Who's Rock Opera Tommy opened on Broadway.
Only days after Madonna tried to strike back at illegal sharing of songs from her "American Life" album by flooding the Internet with fake MP3s, her web site was hacked and real digital files of the songs were leaked.
Songwriter Felice Bryant died of cancer. Along with her husband Boudleaux, she wrote The Everly Brothers hits, "Bye Bye Love", "All I Have To Do Is Dream" and "Wake Up Little Susie". Other acts to record their songs include Buddy Holly, Bob Dylan, The Beatles, Tony Bennett, Simon And Garfunkel, Sarah Vaughan, The Grateful Dead, Dolly Parton, Elvis Presley, The Beach Boys, Roy Orbison, Elvis Costello, Count Basie, Dean Martin, Ruth Brown, Cher, R.E.M. and Ray Charles.
Paul Davis, who placed eight songs on the Billboard Top 40 Pop chart, including "I Go Crazy" (#7 in 1977), and "65 Love Affair" (#6 in 1982), suffered a fatal heart attack at the age of 60. After his Pop career was over, Davis topped the Country chart with "You're Still New to Me", a duet with Marie Osmond in 1986 and "I Won't Take Less Than Your Love" with Paul Overstreet and Tanya Tucker in 1987.
The Los Angeles coroner's office ruled that the death of Marie Osmond's 18-year-old son, Michael Blosil, was a suicide, after he jumped from an apartment building in February.
Richie Havens, who rose to fame as the opening act at the Woodstock Festival in 1969, died following a heart attack at the age of 72. During his lengthy career he scored just one Billboard Top 40 hit, a cover of George Harrison's "Here Comes The Sun", which reached #16 in 1971.
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Luftwaffe Norway 1940
Except for a small group of very experienced long-range reconnaissance pilots, the Luftwaffe entered the war with limited experience in operations over water and few of its pilots had any experience at all in anti-shipping operations. This had to some extent improved during the winter and spring of 1940, but due to inter-service rivalry the situation was far from ideal. In the plans for the reconstruction of the German Navy, several Küstenfliegergruppen (coastal aviation groups) were assigned to the Kriegsmarine for reconnaissance and bombing missions in addition to the Trägergruppen to be operating from the planned aircraft carriers. Göring, however, saw that the carriers might become prestige projects and decided that the Luftwaffe should be fully responsible for all aspects of flying off them. For good measure, he also added all other aspects of naval air operations such as mine laying, attacks on shipping and reconnaissance, claiming ‘… anything that flies, belongs to me!’ This meant that the ambitious plan for a naval air force was all but abandoned in favour of fighters and army support aircraft. Even worse, as the total responsibility also included communication, it meant that any information from the aircraft was delayed for several hours while it ascended the Luftwaffe chain of command and then back down through the naval command to the ships.
In September 1939, Generalleutnant Hans Ferdinand Geisler had been ordered to establish the X Fliegerdivision with one specific task: conduct anti-shipping warfare against the Allies. Oberstleutnant Martin Harlinghausen was assigned as his Chief of Staff and they settled at Blankensee near Lübeck. The first unit assigned to X Fliegerdivision was the Heinkel He111-equipped KG 26 ‘Löwen Geschwader’ under Oberst Robert Fuchs.
The He111 was a sturdy but relatively slow medium bomber, far better suited to the intended tactical support role than chasing naval targets. In spite of a respectable bomb load, level bombing of agile warships was rarely successful, except where the ships were trapped in harbours or confined waters. On the open sea, they could usually turn away in time to avoid the bombs.
A significant addition to the corps would come in the form of KG 30 ‘Adler Geschwader, equipped with Junker Ju88 aircraft, pressed into service in the early days of the war. This sleek, twin-engine bomber was significantly faster than the He111 and, as it had dive-brakes, the bombs could be delivered from low level through a steep dive far more suitable against warships than level bombing. The first operational Ju88s were assigned to Geisler’s command in late September 1939. At the same time, his unit was upgraded to a full air corps and renamed X Fliegerkorps. By April 1940, all three Gruppen of KG 30 under Oberstleutnant Walter Löbel were fully operational with Ju88s. The Eagles of KG 30 and the Lions of KG 26 were to develop a close partnership in the months before the attack on Norway. KG 26 would primarily concentrate on merchant shipping while KG 30 would take on the Allied navies.
On 12 April, Luftflotte V was established in Norway under the command of General-oberst Milch, who was to be in charge of all aircraft in that country, including transport units. Göring soon decided that Milch was needed for the campaign on the Western Front, however, and replaced him in early May with General Stumpff.
During early April, the He111-equipped KG 4 and Kampfgruppe KGr 100, as well as the Fw200 Condor-equipped 1./KG 40 and Stuka-equipped I/StG 1 were temporarily assigned to X Fliegerkorps. After the invasion, two groups from Lehrgeschwader LG 1 and II/KG54, flying a mix of He111s and Ju88s, were also added. This meant that the entire maritime and anti-shipping experience of the Luftwaffe was engaged in Norway. By 26 April, when the German air offensive was at its peak, five hundred aircraft were available to Luftflotte V for use in Norway. Apart from the single-seat Bfì.09 fighters of JG 77 at Kjevik-Kristiansand, virtually all Luftwaffe fighter missions over Norway in the spring of 1940 were flown by the half-dozen Ju88C heavy fighters of Z/KG 30 or the twin-engine, two-seater Messerschmitt Bf110s of I/ZG 76. Both units were based at Sola-Stavanger from 10/11 April until transferred to Værnes on 1 May and 20 May, respectively.
The aircraft flew from several airfields in northern Germany, Denmark and Norway, often using Fornebu-Oslo, Sola-Stavanger and Værnes-Trondheim as forward bases for multiple raids during one day. The majority of the aircraft returned to Aalborg in Denmark or a German airfield at night, though, to avoid congestion in Norway. When it was evident that the Norwegians would resist and that Allied forces would come to their assistance, the significance of the Norwegian airfields multiplied and their possession was eventually to be one of the vital factors of the German success.
The flying time from Fornebu or Sola to the Narvik area was substantial, and when it became clear that a major Allied expeditionary corps had landed there, Værnes-Trondheim was vital. No more than a grass-covered aerodrome, the thaw made it soggy and dangerous to use, and while repair work was carried out, the ice on nearby Lake Jonsvatnet was found more suitable. At times, up to fifty aircraft operated from the frozen lake. Following an attack on Namsos on 20 April, a number of the He111 of KGr 100 landed on the ice of Jonsvatnet, including the Gruppenkommandeur Hauptmann Artur von Casimir. During the next day, a rapid thaw made his aircraft sink into the softening ice. With no cranes or other heavy equipment available, the aircraft eventually vanished through the thinning ice in spite of the efforts of the ground crew to save it.
Work on Værnes started on 24 April and some two thousand Norwegian men from the district found it opportune, drawn by good money, cigarettes and alcohol, to report for work at the airfield, in spite of the fact that the aircraft to be flown from there would attack their countrymen in the still unoccupied parts of the country. On 21/22 April, the ice on Jonsvatnet became unusable, but by the 28th, an 800-metre wooden runway at Værnes was cleared for use and the next day, most of KG 26 was transferred from Sola, where it had been since 17 April.
It would be 20 June before the whole runway was completely rebuilt, but from early May Værnes was fully operational at its peak, more than one hundred aircraft operated from there on a daily basis. Conditions were rather primitive though, and on 26 April, Admiral Boehm, Supreme Naval Commander in Norway, reported to Raeder after a visit to Trondheim that Værnes was ‘… small, sodden and miserable at this time of the year with low clouds hanging down from the surrounding mountains’.
From 3 May, X Fliegerkorps was significantly reduced. II and III/LG 1, as well as II/KG 54, were ordered to return to Germany for the attack in the West. Shortly after, parts of KG 26 and KG 30 were also pulled back. Most of the remaining aircraft were deployed at Værnes, from where they could reach Narvik more easily than from the airfields in the south, while remaining largely immune from anything but British carrier-borne attacks. By 10 May, the village of Hattfjelldal near Mosjøen, where there was a small airstrip that with some improvements could be used for refuelling, greatly increased the time the bombers could stay over the Narvik area.
In most of the summaries of the campaign in Norway, German air superiority is held to have been one of the most decisive factors affecting the outcome. There is little argument against this, but it is noteworthy that General Pellengahr, in his account of the events in Gudbrandsdal, holds that several other weapons were more important – among them, the heavy machine guns mounted on half-track motorcycles. In his summary of lessons from the campaign in Norway, General Auchinleck wrote:
The actual casualties caused to troops on the ground by low-flying attacks were few, but the morale effect of continuous machine-gunning from the air was considerable. Further, the enemy made repeated use of low-flying attacks with machine guns in replacement of artillery to cover the movement of his troops. Troops in forward positions subjected to this form of attack are forced to ground and, until they have learned by experience its comparative innocuousness are apt not to keep constant watch on the enemy. Thus the enemy were enabled on many occasions to carry out forward and outflanking movements with impunity. The second effect of low-flying attacks was the partial paralysis of headquarters and the constant interruption in the exercise of command. Thirdly, low-flying attacks against transport moving along narrow roads seriously interfered with supply, though this was never completely interrupted. Bombing was not effective against personnel deployed in the open, but this again interfered with the functioning of headquarters and the movement of supply.
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June 22, 1940 | Hitler Gains Victory Over FranceSource: National Archives and Records Administration A Frenchman wept as German soldiers marched into Paris on June 14, 1940.
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On June 22, 1940, Germany and France signed an armistice in the forest of Compiègne. The treaty provided that hostilities between the two nations would end six hours after the signing of an armistice treaty between France and Italy, Germany’s axis partner. According to the New York Times article, “such procedure, it is predicted, will end the war on the Continent early in the coming week.”
Nazi Germany had invaded Poland in September 1939, starting World War II, and then set its sights on Western Europe. After World War I, France built concrete fortifications along its German border, known as the Maginot Line, to defend against German invasion.
Gen Erich von Manstein of Germany developed a plan to enter France through its much less defended Belgian border, using the overwhelming power of its forces to sweep through Belgium before France could prepare itself.
On June 5, Nazi forces entered France along the Somme River and began a move south toward Paris, reaching the capital on June 14. The French government had abandoned the city, and the Nazis marched through the streets at Parisians watched in shock and sadness.
On June 17, in the southern city of Bordeaux, what remained of the French government decided to seek an armistice. Adolf Hitler insisted on the armistice being signed in the Compiegne Forest, where, in a railroad dining car, 22 years earlier Germany had been forced to sign the armistice ending World War I. The Nazis removed the rail car from a local museum and transported it to the site of the 1918 armistice for the signing on June 22.
On June 6, 1944, 𠇍-Day,” Allied forces invaded German-occupied France at Normandy and began the process of liberating the country. On Aug. 25, 1944, Allied forces joined with the French Resistance to liberate Paris.
Connect to Today:
The United States did not get involved in World War II until Pearl Harbor was attacked by Japan on Dec. 7, 1941. Should the United States have become involved earlier, in response to Germany’s actions?
The United States and other Western countries continue to face difficult decisions on whether to get involved in foreign conflicts, like those in Libya, Syria and Congo.
Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates said in a recent interview that the human costs of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan had made him far more wary about unleashing the might of the American armed forces.
“If we were about to be attacked or had been attacked or something happened that threatened a vital U.S. national interest, I would be the first in line to say, ‘Let’s go,’ ” Mr. Gates said. “I will always be an advocate in terms of wars of necessity. I am just much more cautious on wars of choice.”
What do you think? What is a “war of choice” and what should be the principles that guide decisions on whether, and how, to intervene?
Learn more about what happened on June 22 by visiting our related On This Day page.
Learn more about Historic Headlines and our collaboration with findingDulcinea, the “Librarian of the Internet,” by reading our introductory post.
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America is at its best when we use our power the way we are in Libya now – to protect innocent civilians. Such interventions should no longer be seen as “wars of choice,” but as moral imperatives. As horrible as the costs of war are (and I’m glad we have a defense secretary who recognizes them), the costs of inaction and delay – seen in the Holocausts of WWII, Darfur, Yugoslavia, Rwanda – are worse. We can’t always intervene effectively, but where we can we should.
I think it’s fine to be the savior to the world as long as we’ve taken care of business at home. Like making sure that the American families left behind, as our liberators go to the aid of others, are secure and stable when they return (if they return).
World started getting civilized half a century ago and still remnants of absurdity erupt from most civilized parts of the world (I am referring to the West generally and the US specifically). “Live and Let Live” must be implemented by letter and spirit in the world, otherwise this delicately globalized world will again be at the verge of third heinous WW…
I agree with Gates that American invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq were wars of choice… And not extrication from Afghan quagmire is the biggest challenge to American players…. Decision of Obama will be historic and set the future of the US and South Asia…
This article is about some of Germany’s actions in World War Two and how America completely neglected the needs of citizens of other countries. America only intervened when actions were taken against them (pearl harbor). Through this article they conveyed the differences in America then, and America now which now, is involved in other nations problems but to benefit the citizens of that country.
I believe that in World War 2 America should have aided the allied forces against Germany because at that time America was a country that was born during a technological evolution and would have been able to greatly decrease the innocent deaths that occurred during the war. I am happy to know that the Secretary of Defense is careful in how he picks wars we should go into. I also support the united states actions in Libya to protect the people from their own government.
Chicago Cubs at Pittsburgh Pirates Box Score, April 22, 1940
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